Free List of The Best Forex Keywords for AdWords PPC ...

Forex SEO Tactics Quick Guide for 2020

Putting business online is one of the crucial things in today’s world. But just going online isn’t enough to reach your target audience; you also need to preserve all sorts of website expertise. You should also concentrate on sophisticated SEO strategies and properly apply them for better productivity.
In this technology-prone age, Forex SEO strategies will change the entire forex market scenario to yield better returns. The SEO tactics will change anytime, and the worst thing is that sometimes you have no clue. Search engine optimization research is great to boost the forex platform rankings.
Which Forex SEO tactics should you implement in 2018? Review the Top 8 SEO strategies chart below:
  1. Make Your Website Super-Fast Looking at the last five years ‘ forex website design, you will remember how sluggish they were. And now, the situation has changed significantly, focusing more on the speed of mobile browsing relative to desktops and laptops. Forex SEO can be best applied with a super-fast Forex website, as it is also a key factor in rankings.
  2. Maintain Your Website Mobile Friendliness Once combined with mobile optimization, Forex SEO helps build stable links and allows the search process easier and faster. Customers are more familiar with the smartphone, so after Google prioritizes, they see those forex sites that are faster and ranked in top position.
  3. Produce High-Quality Content Forex SEO service continues to be quite spectacular when combined with the appealing, error-free content that contains the targeted keywords. Well-researched quality content is now highly in demand and helps build good, long-term customer relationships.
  4. Update Your Blog It’s important to match the existing content with successful and appropriate improvements to boost organic traffic on your respective forex website. Edit your old content and try adding new posts to your site for improved discussions and results. A blog lets maintain your website and reach your community.
  5. Use of Voice Search Is Impressive Voice search is now in demand, and one of the town’s popular buzzwords. Optimize your forex website with conversational keywords, and use the voice search option to attract a wide audience to your forex website.
  6. A strong social interaction is beneficial Social media helps develop a strong online presence among millions of users. Sharing and handling useful content on social media channels could be beneficial in gaining users ‘ interest, as well as increasing the chances of quality connections.
  7. Switch To Bing and Yahoo Too Google may be called the king of the search engine for your respective Forex SEO. However, at the same time, don’t worry about Bing and Yahoo, which are also considered the top search engines that deliver consumers to your forex page and place you on the list.
  8. Analyze Your User Experience Improving user experience is one of the latest industry phenomena. Therefore, you can improve it by giving users reliable access and assistance that can raise your score.
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How To Start A Blog

Creating a blog couldn’t be easier and yet more complicated in 2020.
There are so many different things to think about, and yet so many different platforms you can use to streamline the process.
Understandably you’ll already have an idea of what you want to write about, I, unfortunately, can’t help you with that, but what I can do is show you how you can set up a killer blog that will drive readers to your website.
We’ll take you through what you’ll need to get started, our five steps to setting your blog up, the best blogging platforms to use, how to get your blog discovered, and the do’s and don’ts of blogging.
But first, we need to establish what type of blog you want to set up.

What type of blog?

Firstly you’ll want to have a goal in mind. What are you aiming to achieve through your blog?
Do you want to pull in more users to your sales pages by writing about your brand, to increase its publicity?
Do you want to build a blog that promotes brands and products from other companies?
Or do you just want to set up a blog documenting your travels around the world?
In order to pick the right software for you, you’ll want to have a grasp before you start of how big this blog is going to be, whether you’re going to monetize it, and what type of blog it’s going to become.
For example, if you’re planning on building an affiliate blogging programme, where you promote other brand’s products and call readers to action to but the products, you’ll be writing a lot of content and will benefit from having a more comprehensive blogging system with lots of plugins to promote sales.
But if you’re looking to just set up a personal, or a personal brand blog talking about yourself and your brand, you may not perhaps need as many comprehensive features as you would if you were building an affiliate blog.
You may also want to build an online portfolio of your work, which could require an entirely different piece of blogging kit, as opposed to the traditional blog that hosts articles and journals.

What you’ll need to get started.

There are 3 key things you’ll need to get up and running.

  1. A blogging platform.
After you’ve identified the type of blog you want to set up, plus whether you’re going to make money from it, you’ll then need to pick a blogging platform tailored to your needs. Many people chose to operate on WordPress as it is one of the most comprehensive blogging systems going, but they forget platforms like Wix and Squarespace that are great for both helping you save and make money and are great options for those who are less tech-savvy and are new to the blogging game. Plus if you’re blogging for business, you might want to think about using LinkedIn for your business blog.
We’ll go into more detail on what blogging platforms are best for your needs shortly, but make sure to keep in mind your objectives and technical experience when choosing the right platform for you.
  1. A hosting platform.
Every website needs a web host to store their website’s information on the internet. A web host is an online service provider that will store your website’s information on one of its online servers. This will put your blog out there to the world. The best web hosts will perform a variety of functions for you, for example, Wix is an all-in-one package that will host your website for you, allow you to register a domain name, and has easy to use website design tools to help you start your blog.
Web hosting can be expensive though so make sure you pick the best value for money host that can cater to the amount of traffic you have running through your website. Check out our post on the 11 best hosting providers. [Insert blog link here]
  1. A domain name.
I’m sure by now you already know what sort of blog you want to set up, whether that’s a travel, blog, a blog accompanying your online store, or perhaps an affiliate marketing product review blog. You’ll have a niche and an idea and now all you need is a name. Every website online has what’s called a domain name. It’s included in the website address at the top of your search bar, for example, our domain name is www.digitalsupermarket.com.
You’ll need to register a domain name after you purchase a hosting plan, to enable customers to find your site quickly and easily. One good tip is to find a hosting platform like Bluehost or GoDaddy that will provide you with a free domain name when you register for one of their web hosting plans as domain registration can be fairly pricey. Pick a great domain name that is easy for customers to read and type into Google so they can find it easier online.
TOP TIP: To increase your blog’s search engine ranking, and to help more people find you on Google, try to pick a domain name that has either a .com or .co.uk ending. These domains often rank a lot higher in Google searches than .org’s, .net’s, and .info’s, and for that reason can be slightly more expensive, yet can help boost your site’s reach and credibility.

The Best Blogging Platforms For You.

There are a wealth of platforms out there catering to all your blogging or online portfolio needs. We have listed some of the main ones below shedding some light on what needs they service and why they might be a great option for you.

WordPress - The best software to give you full customisation.

WordPress is perhaps one of the most renowned blogging platforms in the world, running approximately 35% of the internet. It’s favoured highly by professional bloggers because it gives you total freedom to do whatever you want with your blog. WordPress can help you build your blog using one if its search engine optimised themes, you can customise using its drag and drop website builder tool to create a stunning blog.
What’s more, is you’ll be able to use its professional blogging service to post your content online and take advantage of the hundreds of third party app plugins, you can integrate into your blog, to improve automation, add new features, and drive traffic to your site. The only downside of WordPress is that it can be quite technical and can take some time getting used to, but once you’ve got the hang of things, you’ll have great control over everything on your webpage.
Pros:
Cons:

Wix - Best for monetizing your site.

Wix is probably the most streamlined and easiest blog providers. It’s so simple and easy to use, it’s therefore great for anyone just starting out in the blogging world. You can customise one of its stunning templates with Wix’s drag and drop editor, and then upload blog posts to your site by slotting in pictures, gifs, social media buttons, sidebars, and other widgets that will help your blog stand out.
One of the coolest features about Wix is its marketplace integration, where you can install a whole variety of third-party applications to your blog to provide your users with greater features and usability. Wix is the perfect all-in-one blogging solution to help you easily build a platform to amplify your business to the world, helping you to make more money, but it can also save you a lot of money as it’s cost-efficient plans roll up, web hosting, blog posting, and domain registration all into one product!
Check out our Wix review and our comparison of Wix and Squarespace for a deep dive into Wix’s main blogging features. [Insert link here]
Pros:
Cons:

Squarespace - Best for creating visually stunning blogs.

Squarespace is very similar to Wix, in that it is an all-in-one web building and blogging platform that can help you build a blog you can monetize efficiently. It sets itself aside though through its better design and customisation features, making it one of the best platforms on the marketing if you’re looking to design a visually aesthetic blog. I’d recommend using this platform if you are a business operating in some sort of design, arts, or culinary industry.
Although it offers minimal template options, Squarespace’s templates are works of art and offer you great customization when building your blog. Plus Squarespace offers a great blogging tool that lets you schedule posts and customize your blog to suit more mobile audiences.
Pros:
Cons:

LinkedIn - Best for blogging businesses.

Aside from setting up a blog on your own site, corporate entities can use LinkedIn to enhance and amplify their presence online. LinkedIn has more than 575 million users, most of whom are professionals and members of corporate conglomerates, and you can use this social platform to target some of the most influential people in the world.
If you’re blogging about business this is the perfect platform to use a pre-existing community of people to enhance your social standing. You’ll then be able to build connections and followers on your profile who can easily share your blog on their platform through a couple of simple clicks.
Pros:
Cons:

Instagram - Best for the Artists.

Instagram is one of the biggest blogging sites in the world and without realising it, we are all technically bloggers in some way with our Instagram accounts, right? Ultimately for professional use, it is great for building a portfolio that has some form of visual or graphic eye-catching media around it. Instagram lets you post videos, photos, boomerangs, even write a blog in the photo’s caption if you wanted to!
Best of all, Instagram is free, and you can use its business software to link up your online store, to drag users away from your profile, using its product tagging features, and land them in your online checkouts. Our top tip for using Instagram is to post regularly and keep on the theme of your blog. Don’t go off-piste as you’re followers will catch on quickly and unfollow you. And with 1 billion people using the platform each day, it is a great way to gain people’s attention and build your brand’s presence online.
Pros:
Cons:

The Do’s And Don’ts Of Blogging

Here are a couple of top tips to bear in mind when building your blog to help you create an awesome, lead driven platform.

The Don’ts

Don’t use complicated language too soon.

With that in mind, do include language that your target audience will understand. But remember they are still here to learn, so don’t drop people in at the deep end right away by using complex jargon off the bat. Define terms and spell it out in layman’s terms for people at the outset, and as the post goes on, then introduce more complex writing. Introducing technical jargon at the start of your posts is an instant turn off for most readers.

Don’t waffle - Keep it succinct.

People want to get to the punchline now. 43% of people admit to skimming through blogs to get to the information they need, meaning to get your blogging site converting leads, you need to engage the reader early on and offer information succinctly throughout your post.
Plus don’t make your blog too long. Depending on what you’re writing, a lot of people will see large volumes of text and will switch off immediately. There is no set limit for what a good and bad amount of text is, that’s something you’ll have to figure out per your industry, but from my experience, the shorter, the better.

Don’t make headlines too long.

Also ensure that your headline is not more than 60 characters long. If it gets too long it won’t rank well in search engines and people just won’t want to read it. Check out this headline analysis tool which will analyse the effectiveness of your proposed headlines.

Don’t plagiarise or use credited images.

Copying other people’s work is lazy and can land you in a lot of hot water in extreme cases if you breach a copyright regulation. But it’s also just unfair on the person who has worked hard or been creative to write that work. The same goes for images, people need to make a living from the content and photos they’re taking so don’t steal that off them.

The Do’s

Do write killer headlines.

People are like goldfish. You only have about 3 seconds to get their attention. That’s why it is important to write catchy, funny, and enticing headlines to draw your reader in. One good way to do it is to use the “How To” and “10 Best” strategies. These sorts of titles telling people ‘How to set up a blog’ or ‘the ten best web hosting platforms’ are search engine optimised, lead winning titles that rank highly in Google searches. Try them out and see!

Do post regularly.

The key to creating a great blog that builds leads is posting regularly. Although it is not the best idea to post regularly. Ideally, you want to post 3-4 times a week to get the best influx of traffic to your site. You’ll also want to check out when’s best to post for your target audience, for example, if you’re in the FOREX market, you’ll want to post your blogs perhaps at 8 AM, before the markets open when city workers are on their staring at their phones on their morning commuter trains to the city.

Do share on social media.

Share your content far and wide on your social platforms. Everyone is on social media these days and its outreach is simply phenomenal. That’s why you should always share your posts to your social channels to get greater traffic on your website, and include share buttons all-around your blog to invite your readers to share your articles too!

Do use SEO keywords to drive more traffic.

In a nutshell, SEO keywords are the phrases people put into search engines when they are looking for information on a certain subject. They are how you get found on your website. Depending on what you are writing about, there is always a set of keywords relating to that topic that you can implement, to help you show up higher in people’s google searches. For example, people might regularly search in google, ‘what is the best compost for growing sunflowers?’ When you come to writing about growing sunflowers in your blog, you might want to use these words or incorporate this question into your blog somewhere, to help you rank higher on Google.

Do use call’s to action to take your readers to the next step.

If you don’t challenge your reader at the end of your blog to follow you on Instagram, or check out your sales pages, you’ll never get the leads or sales you are looking for. With that in mind, build compelling calls to action at the end of each of your posts, to pull readers into taking the next step. Check out our post on landing pages to see a couple of cool ways on how to implement calls to action on your site [insert link here].

Do identify a target audience.

People will often tell you to write as though you were in the shoes of the person you’re looking to bring to your website, but it’s true! Identify what type of people you’re writing to, for instance, if you’re writing a business blog about FOREX trading, you’ll write with potential traders in mind who have one eye on the stock market and the other on your blog. Or if you’re a wedding florist, you’ll set your portfolio up to target those people looking to get married in the next year.

Leads, Sales, Results.

Blogging is one of the most influential marketing strategies in the world and the best bloggers can reap some awesome rewards for producing some truly awesome content.
It is fairly straightforward to get started and we advise if you’re a small business, or someone with minimal blogging experience, to try out Wix or Squarespace first before you jump into using more technical platforms like WordPress. Once you’re up and running remember our top tips on what to do and what to avoid when writing your blog. Plus don’t forget to think about optimising and adding useful applications to your site to help you build and grow your content. Check out these 39 awesome blogging tools you can use to drive greater traffic to your site!
Found this article useful? Make sure you share it with your friends on Facebook and Twitter and let us know in the comments if you have any other useful blogging tips.
submitted by digitalsupermarket to u/digitalsupermarket [link] [comments]

Central bank freezes 38 firms’ accounts over forex infractions, others

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 49%. (I'm a bot)
The Central Bank of Nigeria has instructed banks to place a post-no-debit on the bank accounts of 38 companies.
The affected accounts belong to betting companies, bureau de change companies and some logistics companies, according to a report on Saturday.
The report stated that the companies were being accused of forex infractions, moving forex abroad without the required authorisation and "Economic sabotage."
In a September 4 memo signed by the Director of Banking Supervision, Bello Hassan, read, "You are hereby required to place the under listed accounts on post-no-debit with immediate effect and revert with the account names, numbers, currencies and balances of all accounts placed on PND.".
A post-no-debit means that all debit transactions, including ATMs and cheques, on the accounts have been blocked but money can be deposited into the accounts.
The apex bank said only the listed companies should be placed on PND adding that all related accounts be excluded.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: account#1 company#2 Bank#3 place#4 post-no-debit#5
Post found in /worldnews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Nigeria Central Bank freezes 38 firms' accounts over forex breaches

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 55%. (I'm a bot)
The Central Bank of Nigeria has directed all banks to initiate a post-no-debit on the bank accounts of 38 companies over alleged forex infractions among other violations.
The affected bank accounts are mainly for bureau de change, betting and logistics companies, The Cable reports.
"You are hereby required to place the under listed accounts on post-no-debit with immediate effect and revert with the account names, numbers, currencies, and balances of all accounts placed on PND.".
As per the directive, CNB ordered banks to submit names, addresses, and Bank Verification Numbers of all the exporters who have failed to repatriate their export proceeds.
Nigeria ranks as one of the major hubs for forex trading in Africa.
A Post-No-Debit is a direction where banks do not allow any withdrawals or transfers from the bank account of account owners.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: Bank#1 account#2 forex#3 trading#4 companies#5
Post found in /news.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Dollar gains, yuan takes hit as Hong Kong simmers

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 75%. (I'm a bot)
TOKYO - The dollar edged higher on Wednesday as worries about the U.S. response to China's proposed security law and renewed protests in Hong Kong supported safe-haven demand for the greenback.
The yuan slipped to its lowest in nearly nine months due to concern about increased tension in Hong Kong and a seasonal rise in Chinese corporate demand for dollars.
"More problems between these two countries would slow the dollar's recent decline and potentially lead to dollar buying as a safe haven."
The dollar edged up to $1.2320 against the pound on Wednesday, pulling away from its lowest level in two weeks.
The Australian dollar fell to $0.6642, while the New Zealand dollar eased to $0.6195 as worries about U.S.-China tensions hurt demand for riskier assets.
Chinese companies listed in Hong Kong bought dollars to make dividend payments to their overseas investors, which exacerbated the yuan's decline.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: dollar#1 Wednesday#2 Kong#3 euro#4 yuan#5
Post found in /worldnews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

How Hong Kong Protests are Portrayed By Different News Media Worldwide • Fake News vs. Real News •

How Hong Kong Protests are Portrayed By Different News Media Worldwide • Fake News vs. Real News •
This Russian government's state funded "news network" RT News is so comical to me, they would love to convince the whole world that the US has become a declining power, the US dollar is not the world's number one reserve currency, that the Chinese Yuan is and that all next generation high-tech in this planet is now being indigenously innovated in China.
https://i.redd.it/typ9ikw5wat31.jpg
It seems laughable to me watching RT news coverage of the Hong Kong demonstrations making real hard efforts to protrait the pro-democracy movement as being demonstrations of people "experiencing economic hardship" confusing democracy with "economic prosperity" whilst at the same time accusing the demonstrators of being manipulated and funded by Western intelligence services including the CIA.
I told myself "well which one is it? Are they confused demonstrators experiencing economic hardship or manipulated puppets of the West?" LOL!
At the end I just said to myself what an insult to the Hong Kong pro-democracy demonstrators. Portraying them of not being intelligent enough to organize themselves and accusing them of not knowing their own cause.
China's CGTN in the other hand while just as bad if not worse than RT, does a lot better job at spreading propaganda. Perhaps because they are much better funded. Doing it a lot more tactfully and assertively.
Their efforts being more concentrated at projecting China as a highly-developed Nation under the rule of law, and a "responsible world leader", minimizing if not censoring the impact the trade war with the US has had on their economy. With it's market widely open to foreign investment where IP protection takes the highest priority.
Covering the situation in Hong Kong more or less as a "city under siege of rioters and vandalism".
Even going as far as calling Xin Jiang China a "prosperous paradise for Uighur Muslims". And you can forget any mentioning of "re-education camps". Even devoting entire segments to "China's human rights developments".
It's extraordinarily unbelievable the claims networks like RT news and CGTN from China make and how far they're willing to go to misinform their domestic population and now International audiences through their multilingual news branches which most governments where they operate consider them "Kremlin and Beijing propaganda outlets" rather than legitimate and credible news networks.
https://www.theguardian.com/media/2017/nov/29/24-hour-putin-people-my-week-watching-kremlin-propaganda-channel-rt-russia-today
https://www.scmp.com/news/world/europe/article/2174927/uk-watchdog-may-probe-china-state-medias-role-confession-peter
If such claims were true, 90% of all foreign business transactions worldwide would not be conducted in US dollars.
And that is just one statistic. 61% of all world foreign currency reserves are in dollars. According to the international monetary fund.
Eclipsing the next 4 other currencies put together with the Euro at 20%, the Japanese Yen at over 5% the British pound at just under 5% with the Chinese Yuan last under 2%.
The Chinese Yuan has not replaced the USD and won't be replacing it anytime soon:
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex-currencies/091416/what-would-it-take-us-dollar-collapse.asp
https://www.nationalreview.com/2019/08/why-us-dollar-will-remain-strong/
https://www.thebalance.com/world-currency-3305931
China has made great progress modernizing itself and deserves credit for it. With new high-tech hub cities like Shenzhen attempting to rival Silicon Valley.
Keyword "attempting to". In addition to Shenzhen, Tel Aviv Israel, Tallinn Estonia, Melbourne Australia and Toronto Canada are also considered cities rivaling Silicon Valley:
https://www.theneweconomy.com/technology/top-5-tech-hubs-to-rival-silicon-valley
But that isn't the important story. 90 - 95% of all the high-tech in China has been imported from abroad, rebranded and falsely claimed to have been innovated indigenously. In other words "invented in China". Through various means raging from forced tech transfers, intellectual property and Trade secrets theft by either cyber attacks on foreign competitor's databases, corporate spying and bribery.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-28/from-bounty-payments-to-espionage-u-s-alleges-chinese-ip-theft
The list of companies whose intellectual property and trade secrets were stolen is so vast it couldn't be compiled in this article alone. But here are some important ones:
AMSC - Wind Turbine technology
Westinghouse - Nuclear technology
Solar World - Solar panel technology
Kawasaki Heavy Industries - High-Speed rail technology
US Steel - Steel Technology
Alcoa - Aluminium Technology
Micron - Semiconductor Technology
T-Mobile, Motorola, Cisco Systems and Nortel Networks - Wireless and Telecommunications Technology
Sources:
https://youtu.be/AzZlymlpPmU
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-unreal-scope-of-chinas-intellectual-property-theft/
https://www.wsj.com/articles/huaweis-yearslong-rise-is-littered-with-accusations-of-theft-and-dubious-ethics-11558756858
It's for these masterful intelligence operations expanding 2-3 decades, that I give China most credit for.
As to whether American is a declining power or not depends on how a state's power is measured but most importantly how it's perceived, individually and collectively by other nations.
What you personally believe, What region of the world you're in, which language you speak and what sources of information you have access to is actually more important than any public survey taken or any official state statistic or international ranking.
But a most recent survey conducted by 2019 Best countries and multiple other organizations surveyed 20,000 individuals from 4 different regions around the world. And when asked to name the most powerful countries in the world taking into consideration military, political and economic influence the US came in first followed by Russia with China surprisingly in 3rd place.
http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/most-powerful-countries/
To summarize, in this modern day in age of false news, state propaganda and politically biased misinformation campaigns the most important thing is to no longer depend on a single source of information but multiple sources of information.
During my research I've compiled a list of reliable international news sources with at least an "attempt to report the news with limited bias" and report verified news with some degree of neutrality.
My most reliable news and information sources list is:
1 DW News (Germany)
2 PBS (U.S.)
3 Al Jazeera (Qatar)
4 BBC News (UK)
5 France 24 (France)
6 Wikipedia (US) in 285 languages.
Additionally here is a list of most unreliable, bias and heavily censored state funded international news organizations fiercely criticized for attempting to further domestic political propaganda abroad:
1 RT News (Russia)
2 CGTN (China)
3 CCTV (China)
4 TRT News (Turkey)
5 HispanTV / IRIB (Iran)
Finally, the following is a list I felt also needed to be compiled as it merits mentioning. News organizations that despite being politically biased, do report real news and events although be it spined to fit their narrative. But also exclude important and relevant news topics and/or allocate limited coverage to further their in-house political agendas:
1 TRT News (Turkey)
2 CNN News (US Far-left)
3 Fox News (US Far-right)
4 MSNBC News (US Far-Left)
5 Sky News Australia (Far-right)
For more information I recommend visiting the following websites:
https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/trt-world/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2014/10/21/lets-rank-the-media-from-liberal-to-conservative-based-on-their-audiences/
By Allan Rios
Please subscribe to my YouTube channel and get updates on articles and original content videos: https://www.youtube.com/usededoshucos
UPDATE OCT 19, 2019
Here is an extraordinary piece from DW news debunking Hong Kong fake social media posts: https://youtu.be/9AB32zU_EW8
This is one of the reasons why I chose to place DW news at the top of my list. After watching this piece, Notice how besides exposing the chinese communist government's misinformation campaign it also exposes Twitter and Facebook as co-conspirators facilitating the spread of fake news propaganda in it's platforms. "Accepting money from the CCP".
Reporting news with a high degree of objectivity, covering this report from multiple sides, not just telling one side of the story.
submitted by Dedoshucos to HongKong [link] [comments]

A Comprehensive Guide to Fake News & Real News Agencies • RT • CGTN • FOX • CNN • DW News • BBC

This Russian government's state funded "news network" RT News is so comical to me, they would love to convince the whole world that the US has become a declining power, the US dollar is not the world's number one reserve currency, that the Chinese Yuan is and that all next generation high-tech in this planet is now being indigenously innovated in China.
https://i.redd.it/typ9ikw5wat31.jpg
It seems laughable to me watching RT news coverage of the Hong Kong demonstrations making real hard efforts to protrait the pro-democracy movement as being demonstrations of people "experiencing economic hardship" confusing democracy with "economic prosperity" whilst at the same time accusing the demonstrators of being manipulated and funded by Western intelligent services including the CIA.
I told myself "well which one is it? Are they confused demonstrators experiencing economic hardship or manipulated puppets of the West?" LOL!
At the end I just said to myself what an insult to the Hong Kong pro-democracy demonstrators. Portraying them of not being intelligent enough to organize themselves and accusing them of not knowing their own cause.
China's CGTN in the other hand while just as bad if not worse than RT, does a lot better job at spreading propaganda. Perhaps because they are much better funded. Doing it a lot more tactfully and assertively.
Their efforts being more concentrated at projecting China as a highly-developed Nation under the rule of law, and a "responsible world leader", minimizing if not censoring the impact the trade war with the US has had on their economy. With it's market widely open to foreign investment where IP property protection takes highest priority.
Covering the situation in Hong Kong more or less as a "city under siege of rioters and vandalism".
Even going as far as calling Xin Jiang China a "prosperous paradise for Uighur Muslims". And you can forget any mentioning of "re-education camps". Even devoting entire segments to "China's human rights developments".
It's extraordinarily unbelievable the claims networks like RT news and CGTN from China make and how far they're willing to go to misinform their domestic population and now International audiences through their multilingual news branches wich most governments where they operate consider them "Kremlin and Beijing propaganda outlets" rather than legitimate and credible news networks.
https://www.theguardian.com/media/2017/nov/29/24-hour-putin-people-my-week-watching-kremlin-propaganda-channel-rt-russia-today
https://www.scmp.com/news/world/europe/article/2174927/uk-watchdog-may-probe-china-state-medias-role-confession-peter
If such claims were true, 90% of all foreign business transactions worldwide would not be conducted in US dollars.
And that is just one statistic. 61% of all world foreign currency reserves are in dollars. According to the international monetary fund.
Eclipsing the next 4 other currencies put together with the Euro at 20%, the Japanese Yen at over 5% the British pound at just under 5% with the Chinese Yuan last under 2%.
The Chinese Yuan has not replaced the USD and won't be replacing it anytime soon:
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex-currencies/091416/what-would-it-take-us-dollar-collapse.asp
https://www.nationalreview.com/2019/08/why-us-dollar-will-remain-strong/
https://www.thebalance.com/world-currency-3305931
China has made great progress modernizing itself and deserves credit for it. With new high-tech hub cities like Shenzhen attempting to rival Silicon Valley.
Keyword "attempting to". In addition to Shenzhen, Tel Aviv Israel, Tallinn Estonia, Melbourne Australia and Toronto Canada are also considered cities rivaling Silicon Valley:
https://www.theneweconomy.com/technology/top-5-tech-hubs-to-rival-silicon-valley
But that isn't the important story. 90 - 95% of all the high-tech in China has been imported from abroad, rebranded and falsely claimed to have been innovated indigenously. In other words "invented in China". Through various means raging from forced tech transfers, intellectual property and Trade secrets theft by either cyber attacks on foreign competitor's databases, corporate spying and bribery.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-28/from-bounty-payments-to-espionage-u-s-alleges-chinese-ip-theft
The list of companies whose intellectual property and trade secrets were stolen is so vast it couldn't be compiled in this article alone. But here are some important ones:
AMSC - Wind Turbine technology
Westinghouse - Nuclear technology
Solar World - Solar panel technology
Kawasaki Heavy Industries - High-Speed rail technology
US Steel - Steel Technology
Alcoa - Aluminium Technology
Micron - Semiconductor Technology
T-Mobile, Motorola, Cisco Systems and Nortel Networks - Wireless and Telecommunications Technology
Sources:
https://youtu.be/AzZlymlpPmU
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-unreal-scope-of-chinas-intellectual-property-theft/
https://www.wsj.com/articles/huaweis-yearslong-rise-is-littered-with-accusations-of-theft-and-dubious-ethics-11558756858
It's for these masterful intelligence operations expanding 2-3 decades, that I give China most credit for.
As to whether American is a declining power or not depends on how a state's power is measured but most importantly how it's perceived, individually and collectively by other nations.
What you personally believe, What region of the world you're in, which language you speak and what sources of information you have access to is actually more important than any public survey taken or any official state statistic or international ranking.
But a most recent survey conducted by 2019 Best countries and multiple other organizations surveyed 20,000 individuals from 4 different regions around the world. And when asked to name the most powerful countries in the world taking into consideration military, political and economic influence the US came in first followed by Russia with China surprisingly in 3rd place.
http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/most-powerful-countries/
To summarize, in this modern day in age of false news, state propaganda and politically biased misinformation campaigns the most important thing is to no longer depend on a single source of information but multiple sources of information.
During my research I've compiled a list of reliable international news sources with at least an "attempt to report the news with limited bias" and report verified news with some degree of neutrality.
My most reliable news and information sources list is:
1 DW News (Germany)
2 PBS (U.S.)
3 Al Jazeera (Qatar)
4 BBC News (UK)
5 France 24 (France)
6 Wikipedia (US) in 285 languages.
Additionally here is a list of most unreliable, bias and heavily censored state funded international news organizations fiercely criticized for attempting to further domestic political propaganda abroad:
1 RT News (Russia)
2 CGTN (China)
3 CCTV (China)
4 TRT News (Turkey)
5 HispanTV / IRIB (Iran)
Finally, the following is a list I felt also needed to be compiled as it merits mentioning. News organizations that despite being politically biased, do report real news and events although be it spined to fit their narrative. But also exclude important and relevant news topics and/or allocate limited coverage to further their in-house political agendas:
1 TRT News (Turkey)
2 CNN News (US Far-left)
3 Fox News (US Far-right)
4 MSNBC News (US Far-Left)
5 Sky News Australia (Far-right)
For more information I recommend visiting the following websites:
https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/trt-world/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2014/10/21/lets-rank-the-media-from-liberal-to-conservative-based-on-their-audiences/
By Allan Rios
Please subscribe to my YouTube channel and get updates on articles and original content videos: https://www.youtube.com/usededoshucos
UPDATE OCT 19, 2019
Here is an extraordinary piece from DW news debunking Hong Kong fake social media posts: https://youtu.be/9AB32zU_EW8
This is one of the reasons why I chose to place DW news at the top of my list. After watching this piece, Notice how besides exposing the chinese communist government's misinformation campaign it also exposes Twitter and Facebook as co-conspirators facilitating the spread of fake news propaganda in it's platforms. "Accepting money from the CCP".
Reporting news with a high degree of objectivity, covering this report from multiple sides, not just telling one side of the story.
Rick Sanchez and Michele reenstein RT News at the top of my list for reporting fake news
submitted by Dedoshucos to China [link] [comments]

A Comprehensive List Of Fake News and Real News Agencies • RT • CGTN • FOX • CNN •

This Russian government's state funded "news network" RT News is so comical to me, they would love to convince the whole world that the US has become a declining power, the US dollar is not the world's number one reserve currency, that the Chinese Yuan is and that all next generation high-tech in this planet is now being indigenously innovated in China.
https://i.redd.it/1fywkb9vnat31.png
It seems laughable to me watching RT news coverage of the Hong Kong demonstrations making real hard efforts to protrait the pro-democracy movement as being demonstrations of people "experiencing economic hardship" confusing democracy with "economic prosperity" whilst at the same time accusing the demonstrators of being manipulated and funded by Western intelligent services including the CIA.
I told myself "well which one is it? Are they confused demonstrators experiencing economic hardship or manipulated puppets of the West?" LOL!
At the end I told myself what an insult to the Hong Kong pro-democracy demonstrators. Portraying them of not being intelligent enough to organize themselves and accusing them of not knowing their own cause.
China's CGTN in the other hand while just as bad if not worse than RT, does a lot better job at spreading propaganda. Perhaps because they are much better funded. Doing it a lot more tactfully and assertively.
Their efforts being more concentrated at projecting China as a highly-developed Nation under the rule of law, and a "responsible world leader", minimizing if not censoring the impact the trade war with the US has had on their economy. With it's market wisely open to foreign investment where IP property protection takes highest priority.
Covering the situation in Hong Kong more or less as a "city under siege of rioters and vandalism".
Even going as far as calling Xin Jiang China a "prosperous paradise for Uighur Muslims". And you can forget any mentioning of "re-education camps". Even devoting entire segments to "China's human rights developments".
It's extraordinarily unbelievable the claims networks like RT news and CGTN from China make and how far they're willing to go to misinform their domestic population and now International audiences through their multilingual news branches wich most governments where they operate consider them "Kremlin and Beijing propaganda outlets" rather than legitimate and credible news networks.
https://www.theguardian.com/media/2017/nov/29/24-hour-putin-people-my-week-watching-kremlin-propaganda-channel-rt-russia-today
https://www.scmp.com/news/world/europe/article/2174927/uk-watchdog-may-probe-china-state-medias-role-confession-peter
If such claims were true, 90% of all foreign business transactions worldwide would not be conducted in US dollars.
And that is just one statistic. 61% of all world foreign currency reserves are in dollars. According to the international monetary fund.
Eclipsing the next 4 other currencies put together with the Euro at 20%, the Japanese Yen at over 5% the British pound at just under 5% with the Chinese Yuan last under 2%.
The Chinese Yuan has not replaced the USD and won't be replacing it anytime soon:
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex-currencies/091416/what-would-it-take-us-dollar-collapse.asp
https://www.nationalreview.com/2019/08/why-us-dollar-will-remain-strong/
https://www.thebalance.com/world-currency-3305931
China has made great progress modernizing itself and deserves credit for it. With new high-tech hub cities like Shenzhen attempting to rival Silicon Valley.
Keyword "attempting to". In addition to Shenzhen, Tel Aviv Israel, Tallinn Estonia, Melbourne Australia and Toronto Canada are also considered cities rivaling Silicon Valley:
https://www.theneweconomy.com/technology/top-5-tech-hubs-to-rival-silicon-valley
But that isn't the important story. 90 - 95% of all the high-tech in China has been imported from abroad, rebranded and falsely claimed to have been innovated indigenously. In other words "invented in China". Through various means raging from forced tech transfers, intellectual property and Trade secrets theft by either cyber attacks on foreign competitor's databases, corporate spying and bribery.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-28/from-bounty-payments-to-espionage-u-s-alleges-chinese-ip-theft
The list of companies whose intellectual property and trade secrets were stolen is so vast it couldn't be compiled in this article alone. But here are some important ones:
AMSC - Wind Turbine technology
Westinghouse - Nuclear technology
Solar World - Solar panel technology
Kawasaki Heavy Industries - High-Speed rail technology
US Steel - Steel Technology
Alcoa - Aluminium Technology
Micron - Semiconductor Technology
T-Mobile, Motorola, Cisco Systems and Nortel Networks - Wireless and Telecommunications Technology
Sources:
https://youtu.be/AzZlymlpPmU
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-unreal-scope-of-chinas-intellectual-property-theft/
https://www.wsj.com/articles/huaweis-yearslong-rise-is-littered-with-accusations-of-theft-and-dubious-ethics-11558756858
It's for these masterful intelligence operations expanding 2-3 decades, that I give China most credit for.
As to whether American is a declining power or not depends on how a state's power is measured but most importantly how it's perceived, individually and collectively by other nations.
What you personally believe, What region of the world you're in, which language you speak and what sources of information you have access to is actually more important than any public survey taken or any official state statistic or international ranking.
But a most recent survey conducted by 2019 Best countries and multiple other organizations surveyed 20,000 individuals from 4 different regions around the world. And when asked to name the most powerful countries in the world taking into consideration military, political and economic influence the US came in first followed by Russia with China surprisingly in 3rd place.
http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/most-powerful-countries/
To summarize, in this modern day in age of false news, state propaganda and politically biased misinformation campaigns the most important thing is to no longer depend on a single source of information but multiple sources of information.
During my research I've compiled a list of reliable international news sources with at least an "attempt to report the news with limited bias" and report verified news with some degree of neutrality.
My most reliable news and information sources list is:
1 DW News (Germany)
2 PBS (U.S.)
3 Al Jazeera (Qatar)
4 BBC News (UK)
5 France 24 (France)
6 Wikipedia (US) in 285 languages.
Additionally here is a list of most unreliable, bias and heavily censored state funded international news organizations fiercely criticized for attempting to further domestic political propaganda abroad:
1 RT News (Russia)
2 CGTN (China)
3 CCTV (China)
4 TRT News (Turkey)
5 HispanTV / IRIB (Iran)
Finally, the following is a list I felt also needed to be compiled as it merits mentioning. News organizations that despite being politically biased, do report real news and events although be it spined to fit their narrative. But also exclude important and relevant news topics and/or allocate limited coverage to further their in-house political agendas:
1 TRT News (Turkey)
2 CNN News (US Far-left)
3 Fox News (US Far-right)
4 MSNBC News (US Far-Left)
5 Sky News Australia (Far-right)
For more information I recommend visiting the following websites:
https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/trt-world/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2014/10/21/lets-rank-the-media-from-liberal-to-conservative-based-on-their-audiences/
By Allan Rios
Please subscribe to my YouTube channel and get updates on articles and original content videos: https://www.youtube.com/usededoshucos
UPDATE OCT 19, 2019
Here is an extraordinary piece from DW news debunking Hong Kong fake social media posts: https://youtu.be/9AB32zU_EW8
This is one of the reasons why I chose to place DW news at the top of my list. After watching this piece, Notice how besides exposing the chinese communist government's misinformation campaign it also exposes Twitter and Facebook as co-conspirators facilitating the spread of fake news propaganda in it's platforms. "Accepting money from the CCP".
Reporting news with a high degree of objectivity, covering this report from multiple sides, not just telling one side of the story.
submitted by Dedoshucos to business [link] [comments]

ZT *河蟹*政府工作报告32大要点 目标重点一目了然 by 百江渚 on 2017-03-05

http://stock.jrj.com.cn/2017/03/05135322136193.shtml
第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议今天上午9点开幕,国务院总理*河蟹*作政府工作报告。总理在报告中主要提及以下要点:
谈经济:2017年GDP增长预期目标6.5%左右
货币政策:、继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策
房地产:因城施策去库存 房价上涨压力大的城市要合理增加住宅用地
谈金融市场:积极稳妥去杠杆 加大股权融资力度;抓好金融体制改革。深化多层次资本市场改革,完善主板市场基础性制度,积极发展创业板新三板,规范发展区域性股权市场。拓宽保险资金支持实体经济渠道。
谈去产能:再压减钢铁产能5000万吨左右,退出煤炭产能1.5亿吨以上。
国企改革:深化混合所有制改革,在电力、石油、天然气、铁路、民航、电信、军工等领域迈出实质性步伐。抓好电力和石油天然气体制改革,开放竞争性业务。
谈投资:今年要完成铁路建设投资8000亿元、公路水运投资1.8万亿元,再开工15项重大水利工程,继续加强轨道交通、民用航空、电信基础设施等重大项目建设。
具体要点详见:
1、2017年GDP增长预期目标6.5%左右
*河蟹*表示,今年发展的主要预期目标是:国内生产总值增长6.5%左右,在实际工作中争取更好结果;居民消费价格涨幅3%左右;城镇新增就业1100万人以上,城镇登记失业率4.5%以内;进出口回稳向好,国际收支基本平衡;居民收入和经济增长基本同步;单位国内生产总值能耗下降3.4%以上,主要污染物排放量继续下降。
2、继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策
今年要继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策,在区间调控基础上加强定向调控、相机调控,提高预见性、精准性和有效性,注重消费、投资、区域、产业、环保等政策的协调配合,确保经济运行在合理区间。
财政政策要更加积极有效。今年赤字率拟按3%安排,财政赤字2.38万亿元,比去年增加2000亿元。其中,中央财政赤字1.55万亿元,地方财政赤字8300亿元。货币政策要保持稳健中性。今年广义货币M2和社会融资规模余额预期增长均为12%左右。
3、深入推进改革 加快结构调整
贯彻稳中求进工作总基调,保持战略定力。稳是大局,要着力稳增长、保就业、防风险,守住金融安全、民生保障、环境保护等方面的底线,确保经济社会大局稳定。在稳的前提下要勇于进取,深入推进改革,加快结构调整,敢于啃“硬骨头”,努力在关键领域取得新进展。
4、坚持以推进供给侧结构性改革为主线
必须把改善供给侧结构作为主攻方向,通过简政减税、放宽准入、鼓励创新,持续激发微观主体活力,减少无效供给、扩大有效供给,更好适应和引导需求。这是一个化蛹成蝶的转型升级爱基,净值,资讯过程,既充满希望又伴随阵痛,既非常紧迫又艰巨复杂。要勇往直前,坚决闯过这个关口。
5、适度扩大总需求并提高有效性
我国内需潜力巨大,扩内需既有必要也有可能,关键是找准发力点。要围绕改善民生来扩大消费,着眼补短板、增后劲来增加投资,使扩内需更加有效、更可持续,使供给侧改革和需求侧管理相辅相成、相得益彰。
6、依靠创新推动新旧动能转换和结构优化升级
我国发展到现在这个阶段,不靠改革创新没有出路。我们拥有世界上数量最多、素质较高的劳动力,有最大规模的科技和专业技能人才队伍,蕴藏着巨大的创新潜能。要坚持以改革开放为动力、以人力人才资源为支撑,加快创新发展,培育壮大新动能、改造提升传统动能,推动经济保持中高速增长、产业迈向中高端水平
7、扎实有效去产能
今年要再压减钢铁产能5000万吨左右,退出煤炭产能1.5亿吨以上。同时,要淘汰、停建、缓建煤电产能5000万千瓦以上,以防范化解煤电产能过剩风险,提高煤电行业效率,为清洁能源发展腾空间。要严格执行环保、能耗、质量、安全等相关法律法规和标准,更多运用市场化法治化手段,有效处置“僵尸企业”,推动企业兼并重组、破产清算,坚决淘汰不达标的落后产能,严控过剩行业新上产能。去产能必须安置好职工,中央财政专项奖补资金要及时拨付,地方和企业要落实相关资金与措施,确保分流职工就业有出路、生活有保障。
8、因城施策去库存 房价上涨压力大的城市要合理增加住宅用地
目前三四线城市房地产库存仍然较多,要支持居民自住和进城人员购房需求。坚持住房的居住属性,落实地方政府主体责任,加快建立和完善促进房地产市场平稳健康发展的长效机制,以市场为主满足多层次需求,以政府为主提供基本保障。加强房地产市场分类调控,房价上涨压力大的城市要合理增加住宅用地,规范开发、销售、中介等行为。目前城镇还有几千万人居住在条件简陋的棚户区,要持续进行改造。今年再完成棚户区住房改造600万套,继续发展公租房,因地制宜提高货币化安置比例,加强配套设施建设和公共服务,让更多住房困难家庭告别棚户区,让广大人民群众在住有所居中创造新生活。
9、积极稳妥去杠杆 加大股权融资力度
我国非金融企业杠杆率较高,这与储蓄率高、以信贷为主的融资结构有关。要在控制总杠杆率的前提下,把降低企业杠杆率作为重中之重。促进企业盘活存量资产,推进资产证券化,支持市场化法治化债转股,加大股权融资力度,强化企业特别是国有企业财务杠杆约束,逐步将企业负债降到合理水平。
10、多措并举降成本 继续适当降低“五险一金”有关缴费比例
扩大小微企业享受减半征收所得税优惠的范围,年应纳税所得额上限由30万元提高到50万元;科技型中小企业研发费用加计扣除比例由50%提高到75%,千方百计使结构性减税力度和效应进一步显现。名目繁多的收费使许多企业不堪重负,要大幅降低非税负担。
一是全面清理规范政府性基金,取消城市公用事业附加等基金,授权地方政府自主减免部分基金。二是取消或停征中央涉企行政事业性收费35项,收费项目再减少一半以上,保留的项目要尽可能降低收费标准。各地也要削减涉企行政事业性收费。三是减少政府定价的涉企经营性收费,清理取消行政审批中介服务违规收费,推动降低金融、铁路货运等领域涉企经营性收费,加强对市场调节类经营服务性收费的监管。四是继续适当降低“五险一金”有关缴费比例。五是通过深化改革、完善政策,降低企业制度*河蟹*易成本,降低用能、物流等成本。各有关部门和单位都要舍小利顾大义,使企业轻装上阵,创造条件形成我国竞争新优势。
11、精准加力补短板
要针对严重制约经济社会发展和民生改善的突出问题,结合实施“十三五”规划确定的重大项目,加大补短板力度,加快提升公共服务、基础设施、创新发展、资源环境等支撑能力。
12、深化重要领域和关键环节改革
要全面深化各领域改革,加快推进基础性、关键性改革,增强内生发展动力
13、继续推进财税体制改革 加快制定收入划分总体方案
实和完善全面推开营改增试点政策。简化增值税税率结构,今年由四档税率简并至三档,营造简洁透明、更加公平的税收环境,进一步减轻企业税收负担。推进中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革,加快制定收入划分总体方案,健全地方税体系,规范地方政府举债行为。深入推进政府预决算公开,倒逼沉淀资金盘活,提高资金使用效率,每一笔钱都要花在明处、用出实效。
14、抓好金融体制改革
促进金融机构突出主业、下沉重心,增强服务实体经济能力,防止脱实向虚。鼓励大中型商业银行设立普惠金融事业部,国有大型银行要率先做到,实行差别化考核评价办法和支持政策,有效缓解中小微企业融资难、融资贵问题。发挥好政策性开发性金融作用,强化农村信用社服务“三农”功能。深化多层次资本市场改革,完善主板市场基础性制度,积极发展创业板、新三板,规范发展区域性股权市场。拓宽保险资金支持实体经济渠道。大力发展绿色金融。当前系统性风险总体可控,但对不良资产、债券违约、影子银行、互联网金融等累积风险要高度警惕。稳妥推进金融监管体制改革,有序化解处置突出风险点,整顿规范金融秩序,筑牢金融风险“防火墙”。我国经济基本面好,商业银行资本充足率、拨备覆盖率比较高,可动用的工具和手段多。对守住不发生系统性金融风险的底线,我们有信心和底气、有能力和办法
15、加快推进国企国资改革
要以提高核心竞争力和资源配置效率为目标,形成有效制衡的公司法人治理结构、灵活高效的市场化经营机制。今年要基本完成公司制改革。深化混合所有制改革,在电力、石油、天然气、铁路、民航、电信、军工等领域迈出实质性步伐。抓好电力和石油天然气体制改革,开放竞争性业务。持续推进国有企业瘦身健体、提质增效,抓紧剥离办社会职能,解决历史遗留问题。推进国有资本投资、运营公司改革试点。改善和加强国有资产监管,确保资产保值增值,把人民的共同财富切实守护好、发展好。
16、更好激发非公有制经济活力
深入落实支持非公有制经济发展的政策措施。加快构建新型政商关系。鼓励非公有制企业参与国有企业改革。坚持权利平等、机会平等、规则平等,进一步放宽非公有制经济市场准入。凡法律法规未明确禁入的行业和领域,都要允许各类市场主体平等进入;凡向外资开放的行业和领域,都要向民间资本开放;凡影响市场公平竞争的不合理行为,都要坚决制止。
17、加强产权保护制度建设
保护产权就是保护劳动、保护发明创造、保护和发展生产力。要加快完善产权保护制度,依法保障各种所有制经济组织和公民财产权,激励人们创业创新创富,激发和保护企业家精神,使企业家安心经营、放心投资。对于侵害企业产权的行为,必须严肃查处、有错必纠。
18、稳步推动养老保险制度改革
深化收入分配制度配套改革。稳步推动养老保险制度改革,划转部分国有资本充实社保基金。深化医疗、医保、医药联动改革。全面推开公立医院综合改革,全部取消药品加成,协调推进医疗价格、人事薪酬、药品流通、医保支付方式等改革。深入推进教育、文化和事业单位等改革,把社会领域的巨大发展潜力充分释放出来。
19、促进消费稳定增长
适应消费需求变化,完善政策措施,改善消费环境。一要加快发展服务消费。开展新一轮服务业综合改革试点,支持社会力量提供教育、养老、医疗等服务。推动服务业模式创新和跨界融合,发展医养结合、文化创意等新兴消费。完善旅游设施和服务,大力发展乡村、休闲、全域旅游。扩大数字家庭、在线教育等信息消费。促进电商、快递进社区进农村,推动实体店销售和网购融合发展。二要增加高品质产品消费。引导企业增品种、提品质、创品牌,扩大内外销产品“同线同标同质”实施范围,更好满足消费升级需求。三要整顿和规范市场秩序。严肃查处假冒伪劣、虚假广告、价格欺诈等行为,加强消费者权益保护,让群众花钱消费少烦心、多舒心。
20、积极扩大有效投资 开工15项重大水利工程
引导资金更多投向补短板、调结构、促创新、惠民生的领域。今年要完成铁路建设投资8000亿元、公路水运投资1.8万亿元,再开工15项重大水利工程,继续加强轨道交通、民用航空、电信基础设施等重大项目建设。中央预算内投资安排5076亿元。落实和完善促进民间投资的政策措施。深化政府和社会资本合作,完善相关价格、税费等优惠政策,政府要带头讲诚信,决不能随意改变约定,决不能“新官不理旧账”。
21、加快建设海洋强国
统筹推进三大战略和“四大板块”发展,实施好相关规划,研究制定新举措。推动国家级新区、开发区、产业园区等创新发展。支持资源枯竭、生态严重退化等地区经济转型发展。优化空域资源配置。推进海洋经济示范区建设,加快建设海洋强国,坚决维护国家海洋权益。
22、扎实推进新型城镇化
深化户籍制度改革,今年实现进城落户1300万人以上,加快居住证制度全覆盖。支持中小城市和特色小城镇发展,推动一批具备条件的县和特大镇有序设市,发挥城市群辐射带动作用。推进建筑业改革发展,提高设计水平和工程质量。统筹城市地上地下建设,再开工建设城市地下综合管廊2000公里以上,启动消除城区重点易涝区段三年行动,推进海绵城市建设,使城市既有“面子”、更有“里子”。
23、提升科技创新能力
完善对基础研究和原创性研究的长期稳定支持机制,建设国家重大科技基础设施和技术创新中心,打造科技资源开放共享平台。推进全面创新改革试验。切实落实高校和科研院所自主权,落实股权期权和分红等激励政策,落实科研经费和项目管理制度改革,让科研人员不再为杂事琐事分心劳神。开展知识产权综合管理改革试点,完善知识产权创造、保护和运用体系。深化人才发展体制改革,实施更加有效的人才引进政策,广聚天下英才,充分激发科研人员积极性,定能成就创新大业。
24、加快培育壮大新兴产业爱基,净值,资讯
全面实施战略性新兴产业发展规划,加快新材料、人工智能、集成电路、生物制药、第五代移动通信等技术研发和转化,做大做强产业集群。支持和引导分享经济发展,提高社会资源利用效率,便利人民群众生活。本着鼓励创新、包容审慎原则,制定新兴产业监管规则。深化统计管理体制改革,健全新兴产业统计。在互联网时代,各领域发展都需要速度更快、成本更低的信息网络。今年网络提速降费要迈出更大步伐,年内全部取消手机国内长途和漫游费,大幅降低中小企业互联网专线接入资费,降低国际长途电话费,推动“互联网+”深入发展、促进数字经济加快成长,让企业广泛受益、群众普遍受惠。
25、大力发展先进制造业 推动中国制造向中高端迈进
深入实施《中国制造2025》,加快大数据、云计算、物联网应用,以新技术新业态新模式,推动传统产业生产、管理和营销模式变革。把发展智能制造作为主攻方向,推进国家智能制造示范区、制造业创新中心建设,深入实施工业强基、重大装备专项工程,大力发展先进制造业,推动中国制造向中高端迈进。完善制造强国建设政策体系,以多种方式支持技术改造,促进传统产业焕发新的蓬勃生机。[
26、加强现代农业建设 加强农村公共设施建设
深入推进农业供给侧结构性改革,完善强农惠农政策,拓展农民就业增收渠道,保障国家粮食安全,推动农业现代化与新型城镇化互促共进,加快培育农业农村发展新动能。加快推进农产品(11.66 +0.00%,买入)标准化生产和品牌创建,打造粮食生产功能区、重要农产品生产保护区、特色农产品优势区和现代农业产业园。推进土地整治,大力改造中低产田,新增高效节水灌溉面积2000万亩。
加强农村公共设施建设。新建改建农村公路20万公里。实现农村稳定可靠供电服务和平原地区机井通电全覆盖。完成3万个行政村通光纤。提高农村饮水安全供水保证率。加大农村危房改造力度。深入推进农村人居环境整治,建设既有现代文明、又具田园风光的美丽乡村。
深化农村改革。稳步推进农村集体产权制度改革,深化农村土地制度改革试点,赋予农民更多财产权利。完善粮食等农产品价格形成机制和收储制度,推进农业水价综合改革。深化集体林权、国有林区林场、农垦、供销社等改革。健全农村“双创”促进机制,支持农民工返乡创业,鼓励高校毕业生、退役军人、科技人员到农村施展才华
27、积极主动扩大对外开放 扎实推进“一带一路”建设
面对国际环境新变化和国内发展新要求,要进一步完善对外开放战略布局,加快构建开放型经济新体制,推动更深层次更高水平的对外开放。
坚持共商共建共享,加快陆上经济走廊和海上合作支点建设,构建沿线大通关合作机制。深化国际产能合作,带动我国装备、技术、标准、服务走出去,实现优势互补。加强教育、文化、旅游等领域交流合作。高质量办好“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛,同奏合作共赢新乐章。
28、促进外贸继续回稳向好
落实和完善进出口政策,推动优进优出。扩大出口信用保险覆盖面,对成套设备出口融资应保尽保。设立服务贸易创新发展引导基金。支持市场采购贸易、外贸综合服务企业发展。加快外贸转型升级示范基地建设。促进加工贸易向产业链中高端延伸、向中西部地区梯度转移。推广国际贸易“单一窗口”,实现全国通关一体化。增加先进技术、设备和关键零部件进口,促进贸易平衡发展和国内产业加快升级。
29、进一步放宽服务业、制造业、采矿业外资准入
修订外商投资产业指导目录,进一步放宽服务业、制造业、采矿业外资准入。支持外商投资企业在国内上市、发债,允许参与国家科技计划项目。在资质许可、标准制定、政府采购、享受《中国制造2025》政策等方面,对内外资企业一视同仁。地方政府可在法定权限范围内,制定出台招商引资优惠政策。高标准高水平建设11个自贸试验区,全面推广成熟经验。引导对外投资健康规范发展,提升风险防范能力。中国开放的大门会越开越大,必将继续成为最富吸引力的外商投资目的地。
30、加大生态环境保护治理力度
加快改善生态环境特别是空气质量,是人民群众的迫切愿望,是可持续发展的内在要求。必须科学施策、标本兼治、铁腕治理,努力向人民群众交出合格答卷。
坚决打好蓝天保卫战。今年二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放量要分别下降3%,重点地区细颗粒物(PM2.5)浓度明显下降。全面推进污染源治理。开展重点行业污染治理专项行动。对所有重点工业污染源,实行24小时在线监控。明确排放不达标企业最后达标时限,到期不达标的坚决依法关停。加快淘汰老旧机动车,对高排放机动车进行专项整治,鼓励使用清洁能源汽车。在重点区域加快推广使用国六标准燃油。四要有效应对重污染天气。
强化水、土壤污染防治。今年化学需氧量、氨氮排放量要分别下降2%。抓好重点流域区域水污染和农业面源污染防治。开展土壤污染详查,分类制定实施治理措施。推进生态保护和建设。抓紧划定并严守生态保护红线。
31、推进健康中国建设
城乡居民医保财政补助由每人每年420元提高到450元,同步提高个人缴费标准,扩大用药保障范围。在全国推进医保信息联网,实现异地就医住院费用直接结算。完善大病保险制度,提高保障水平。全面启动多种形式的医疗联合体建设试点,三级公立医院要全部参与并发挥引领作用,建立促进优质医疗资源上下贯通的考核和激励机制,增强基层服务能力,方便群众就近就医。分级诊疗试点和家庭签约服务扩大到85%以上地市。继续提高基本公共卫生服务经费补助标准。适应实施全面两孩政策,加强生育医疗保健服务。支持中医药、民族医药事业发展。食品药品安全事关人民健康,必须管得严而又严。
32、深化高考综合改革试点 加快发展现代职业教育
推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设。深化高考综合改革试点。加快发展现代职业教育。加强民族教育,办好特殊教育、继续教育、学前教育和老年教育。加强教师队伍建设。制定实施《中国教育现代化2030》。
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“妖糖”的前世今生:一部厚重的中国糖业发展史 zt by amigochen on 2018-09-19

文 | 连学智
来源 | 中国糖业协会
1949年前的我国糖业
战国末年,公元前250年左右,宋玉《招魂》篇中有“胹鳖炮羔,有蔗浆兮”之句,当时已知饮取蔗浆。
公元398年,晋人郭义恭的《广志》中说:“甘蔗其饴如石蜜”,已从饮蔗浆到浓缩作糖浆。
唐太宗遣使西域学习制糖法,公元647年在扬州设坊,始制结晶砂糖。
公元674年进而用滴漏法制白糖。当时认为蔗糖有解酒、疗渴.治心腹热胀之效。唐朝王维诗有“饮酒不须愁内热,火官还有蔗浆寒”之句。
唐大历年间(公元766~779年)四川遂宁邹和尚传授制“糖霜”法,产品冰晶透明,宋诗人喻为“琥珀糖霜”。
公元十世纪后,闽,粤、浙等省糖坊以千计。南宋时,中外互市,蔗糖成为主要输出商品,远销伊朗,罗马等地。
明天启年间(公元1621~1627年),琉球人仪间真帝,日本人恒山,先后来我国福建学制糖,台湾、广东、福建华侨也将甘蔗栽培和制糖技术传往菲律宾、爪哇、东印度等地;当时,我国与印度有世界两大制糖国之称。
我国甘蔗糖业历史虽然悠久,但在旧中国,生产一直停滞不前,而且主要是土法制糖。
1933年,广东军阀陈济棠从国外购进设备,在广东陆续兴建了6座日处理1000吨甘蔗糖厂;这是我国最早的甘蔗机制糖厂,但生产很不正常;当时流传的一首民谣说:“广东军阀陈济棠,刮尽民脂办糖厂,榨季不到一百天,有时生产无烟糖(指、将进口糖改换包装,冒充国货出售)”。日本入侵以后,多数糖厂遭到破坏,到解放前夕,仅剩下东莞,顺德两座糖厂勉强维持生产:在福建、广西、云南、四川等甘蔗糖产区没有一座机制糖厂,在四川仅有几家小精炼糖厂。
我国甜菜种植较早,据唐代《新修本草》和《本草抬遗》记载,甜菜在黄河、长江流域作为蔬菜栽培。但甜菜制糖的历史较短,起始于1908年在黑龙江阿城建成第一座甜菜糖厂;此后、于1936年又建了黑龙江哈尔滨糖厂和吉林范家屯糖厂。抗日战争期间,在陕北、甘肃等地设有甜菜土糖坊。
1936年我国产糖41.4万吨,这是解放前产糖量最高的一年;1949年糖产量下降到19.9万吨,当时只有3座机制糖厂,年产糖3万吨,其余均是土糖。
我国台湾省1938年最高年产糖141.8万吨。
1949~1990年计划经济时期的我国制糖业
我国南方盛产甘蔗、北方宜种甜菜,是世界上少数几个既产甘蔗糖又产甜菜糖的国家之一。
我国制糖业的历史虽可追溯到公元前,但是长期的封建社会与半封建、半殖民地的历史,使得旧中国的制糖业一直没有发展起来。
到1949年建国初期,我国的制糖业主要是以牛拉石辊压榨甘蔗的土法制糖为主,中小型机制糖厂只有几家,多数濒临倒闭,1949跨1950年制糖期,能维持生产的机制糖厂仅剩下两、三家,全国所产的26.1万吨糖中90%是土法生产的红糖。
建国初期,我国糖业是在几乎一张白纸的基础上发展起来的。经过建国以来、特别是改革开放以1来的建设,全国糖料播种面积由1949年186.2万亩(其中:甘蔗162.3万亩,甜菜23.9万亩)扩大到1998年2296万亩(其中,甘蔗1664万亩,甜菜632万亩);糖料平均亩产由1949年1.5吨(其中,甘蔗平均亩产1.6吨,甜菜平均亩产0.8吨)提高到甘蔗平均亩产4吨,甜菜平均亩产1.64吨)。产量由1949跨1950年制糖期26.1万吨提高到1998跨1999年制糖期882.6万吨(其中,甘蔗糖产量由24万吨提高到756.8万吨,甜菜糖产量由2万吨提高到125.8万吨)。全国机制糖厂由3家增加到458家,日加工糖料能力由0.2万吨提高到67万吨,年产糖能力由2.4万吨提高到850万吨,其中,甘蔗糖厂由2家增加到373家,日加工甘蔗能力由1650吨提高到57.5万吨,年产糖能力由1.98万吨提高到700万吨;甜菜糖厂由1家增加到85家,日加工甜菜能力由350吨提高到9.5万吨,年产糖能力由0.42万吨提高到150万吨。1998年全国糖厂平均规模为日处理糖料1460吨。
全国有糖业研究机构25个,设计院、所9家;全行业有制糖工业职工35万人,从事糖业生产的农业人口约4000万人;已经建成了包括糖业教学、科研、设计、设备制造、土建安装的完整体系,可以自主进行糖业开发、建设,并先后援助第三世界国家兴建了五十多座糖厂。
除主产品食糖外,以甘蔗、甜菜加工后的副产品为原料的产品计有:纸、纸浆板年产70万吨;食用、饲料酵母年产3万吨;甜菜颗粒粕年产60万吨;糖蜜酒精年产60万吨。
我国是发展中国家,“吃”在国民消费总支出中约占50%。以食糖为原料和辅料的食品有56大类3000多个品种;目前全国年消费食糖量约800万吨,人均年消费食糖约6.4公斤。
在我国,甘蔗、甜菜是仅次于棉花、食用植物油料之后的大宗经济作物,糖料种植区大多集中在周边经济不太发达的省、区,发展糖业生产对振兴这些地区的经济具有重要意义,糖业(包括工、农业)是国家重点扶持发展的产业。
我国糖业的发展大体经历了三个时期。
1. 1949年至1958年是我国糖业发展史上第一个兴盛时期。
这一时期恢复了建国前已停产的5座机械化制糖厂,新建了24座日处理糖料1000吨以上规模的大型机械化制糖厂,新增年产糖能力170万吨。与此同时完成了对12万吨土法制糖产糖能力(当时土糖产糖总能力为36万吨)的机械化、半机械化改造。
这一时期加速发展糖业的主要措施是:
1.1 摸清资源底细,制定发展规划,加强技术后方建设,为糖业的发展打下坚实的基础。
建国初期,原轻工业部设立了制糖工业勘测规划处,负责糖业资源调研、厂址勘测、发展规划;1954年、1956年分别在广州、哈尔滨成立了甘蔗、甜菜制糖工业设计、安装公司,在外国糖业专家的具体帮助下,从1957年开始,具备了自行设计甜菜、甘蔗大、中型糖厂的能力。与此同时,原轻工业部通过跨行业向广州、哈尔滨重型机械厂投资,为制糖工业制造大型专用设备,并先后投资在黑龙江、内蒙古、广东兴建了一批制糖专业机械厂,实现了糖厂设计、设备制造、土建安装立足于国内。
1953年、1956年原轻工业部、食品工业部分别在广州、哈尔滨设立了甘蔗、甜菜糖业研究室。相应在北方甜菜主产区建立了一批甜菜原种站、采种站;在海南建立了甘蔗杂交育种场,在甘蔗主产区建立了甘蔗育种研究机构;从1953年起相继育成了我国自己的甜菜新品种;并进入了我国自育与引进甘蔗良种相结合的时期。
针对建国初期糖业科技人员奇缺,熟练工人不多的情况,1951年,原轻工业部在南京大学、中山大学设立了制糖专业,为新中国培养了第一代制糖高级技术人才。此后,又相继在七所大专院校设立了制糖专业,依靠大专院校举办了十多期在职干部短训班,培养了大批班组长、车间主任以上具有一定理论基础、又有实践经验的管理人员和熟练工人。
截至1958年,我国已建立起自主开发、建设糖业的基础,除承担国内全部糖业建设项目外,从1958年到1983年25年间共援助第三世界国家建成糖厂48座。
1.2 坚持高起点起步的糖业建设方针。
对新建糖厂采取了高起点起步的建设方针,在第一个五年计划期间,从波兰、民主德国、捷克等先进产糖国家引进了七整套各具特点的制糖工艺技术及装备,先后于1955年至1958年建成了包头、新中国、友谊、齐齐哈尔四座甜菜糖厂和广州、江门、广丰、贵县四座甘蔗糖厂,使我国制糖工业工艺及技术装备一跃进入了当时国际先进水平。其中,江门甘蔗糖厂(现江门甘蔗化工厂)是我国引进规模最大(日榨甘蔗3000吨)、并且综合利用甘蔗发展制糖、造纸、酵母、酒精等产品的联合企业。
1.3 依靠科技进步,通过对糖业的改革、改造,提高效率与效益。
甘蔗土法制糖是旧中国糖业生产的主体,建国初期土糖产量占全国食糖总产量的90%。1951年,原轻工业部提出:在土糖集中产区发展机械化制糖厂和对土糖寮实行前机后土改造的方针。1958年,原轻工业部、农业部、商业部联合推广了1470台小型五辊压榨机代替了三分之一(约12万吨土糖产糖能力)牛拉石辊压榨机,使每百公斤甘蔗平均多产土糖1~2公斤。在对土糖寮进行改造的同时,对机械化制糖厂也进行了革新、改造,重点是:实现甘蔗、甜菜、煤、石灰石、食糖等大宗物料装卸、堆垛、捣运机械化,使一个日加工糖料千吨规模糖厂减少劳力200~400人;用先进的连续化、高效率制糖设备代替低效能、间歇的落后生产设备,节省了厂房面积,提高了能力,降低了消耗;采用中、高压背压汽轮发电机组和合理热力分配使用方案,既发电、又供汽,充分回收利用余热,逐步更新低压、低效锅炉,改造落后的热力系统。
1.4 综合合理利用糖料,治理“三废”。
建国初期,蔗渣主要用于燃料;甜菜废丝除附近农民拉走极少量供作饲料外,其余任其风干,甚至排放江河成为一害;糖蜜仅少量用于制酒。“一五”期间,开始用蔗渣造纸,糖蜜制酒精,但规模小、工艺落后,糖厂大多搞单一制糖生产,半年生产、半年闲。
1958年7月,周恩来总理视察江门甘蔗糖厂和蔗渣纸浆厂时指出:“甘蔗用途很广,应该大搞综合利用”。提出把江门甘蔗糖厂改名为江门甘蔗化工厂并亲笔题写了厂名。周总理的指示揭开了我国糖厂开展综合利用、多种经营的新篇章。利用蔗渣造纸、制纸板,利用糖蜜制酒精、酵母,利用甜菜废丝制颗粒粕饲料以及以充分利用废液、废渣为内容的的“三废”治理均取得了重要进展,糖厂综合利用产品产值占到了总产值的18~20%。
这一时期由于方向明确,措施得力,取得了多、快、好、省发展糖业的效果:建设一个大型甘蔗糖厂一般只需1~2年,投产后1~2年即可收回全部投资;建设一个大型甜菜糖厂一般也只需要2~3年,建成后2~3年即可收回全部投资。
2. 1959年至1977年糖业生产建设徘徊期。
1959年至1977年,由于“三年困难”和“十年*河蟹*”,全国食糖产量由1958跨1959年制糖期110.25万吨下降到1961跨1962年制糖期31.19万吨。1961年我国国民经济贯彻了党的“调整、巩固、充实、提高”方针,1963年至1965年,糖料与食糖生产迅速恢复,困难时期停产的糖厂全部复产,一批新建与扩建糖厂也相继投产,1965跨1966年制糖期,全国食糖产量达到155.4万吨的历史最好产糖水平。
1966年开始的“文化大革命”,由于左倾错误思想愈演愈烈,许多有利于发展糖业生产的经济政策受到批判,严重挫伤了农民种植糖料的积极性,糖料与食糖生产十年徘徊,1975跨1976年制糖期,全国产糖161.33万吨,比1966跨1967年制糖期仅增加了10万吨。
3. 1978年党的十一届三中全会以后,我国糖业生产建设进入了历史上最兴盛的时期。
党的十一届三中全会以来,我国农村广泛推行了家庭联产承包责任制,极大地调动了农民的生产积极性。在邓小平理论的指引下,党中央、国务院为满足市场食糖供应,扭转长期依靠进口的局面,确定了“食糖要立足于国内”的方针,采取了一系列经济政策,结束了糖业长期徘徊的局面,经过改革、调整、发展,实现了食糖自给,略有结余,满足了人民的需求。
改革开放以来,我国糖业的发展大体上经历了两个阶段:即1979至1990年,由计划经济向市场经济过渡的阶段;1991年以后,进入社会主义市场经济阶段。
过渡阶段的主要任务是通过改革,从政策上采取一系列措施解除对糖业经济发展的束缚,创造条件,向社会主义市场经济过渡。主要解决四个方面的问题:
(一) 解除糖农口粮不足对糖业发展的束缚。
国务院决定从1980年开始在重点产糖省、区广东、广西、福建、云南、四川、黑龙江、吉林、内蒙古实行粮糖挂钩,吨糖奖售吨粮的政策,确保糖料集中产区糖农口粮不低于邻近产粮区的标准。
(二) 解除主要农用生产资料供应不足对糖业生产的束缚。
国家实行了糖奖化肥政策,每吨甘蔗由国家供应补贴化肥10公斤,每吨甜菜供应补贴化肥12.5公斤。此外在种子用肥和农用地膜供应等方面也给予了积极扶持。
(三)解除价格统得过死对糖业生产发展的束缚
由于食糖价格自1963年国家定价以来,几十年不变,而制糖生产的费用、成本逐年提高,企业由盈转亏,严重影响了工、农业生产的积极性。为了稳定糖农生产的积极性,保证糖厂有充足的原料,各主产糖省、区在国家规定的原料收购价格之外,采取了价外补贴、利润分成和奖售农用物资等办法提高糖农的实际收入,调整糖料与其他农作物之间的合理比价关系。
(四)解除加工能力不足对糖业生产发展的束缚
国家按照“改造扩大老厂、尽量少建新厂”的方针,加快了新增产糖能力的建设,年产糖能力由1979年285万吨提高到了1989年570万吨,使加工能力增长与糖料生产发展基本相适应。
采取这些措施以后,1980跨1981年制糖期,1984跨1985年制糖期,1985跨1986年制糖期全国食糖产量先后跨过了300万吨、400万吨和500万吨的水平,使全国食糖供应得到了极大的改善。此后,由于糖价20多年不变和进口糖多的制约,食糖生产徘徊不前。
1988年国家决定调整食糖出厂价格和调拨价格,1990跨1991年制糖期、1991跨1992年制糖期、全国食糖产量先后跨过了600万吨、700 万吨达到了791万吨,实现了食糖基本自给。
1991年至今跨进市场经济后的我国糖业。
随着社会主义市场经济的发展,1991年国务院决定调整食糖经营管理有关政策,将食糖收购调拨计划由指令性计划改为指导性计划,实行多渠道、少环节地经营食糖批发业务;食糖出厂价由国家定价改为国家指导价;食糖销售实行敞开供应。从1991年开始,通过对食糖生产经营和管理体制的改革,实现了由计划经济向社会主义市场经济过渡。
为稳定与发展糖业生产,实现吃糖立足于国内,国家和主产糖地区政府采取了以下措施:
1. 通过推进科技进步,在南方,重点在广西、湛江、云南等地,开发旱坡地种甘蔗,使90%以上的蔗田由平原、河川地区转移到了旱坡地;在北方,在新疆等地发展垦荒地种甜菜;解决了在耕地不足的条件下,种甘蔗、种甜菜与粮食争地的矛盾。
2. 通过政府支持、地方投资,开发了广西、云南、广东湛江和新疆三省、区,一个市的新的糖料生产基地,实现集中连片种植,适度规模、集约经营,使 四个基地产糖量占全国产糖总量的60%以上,成为稳定全国食糖生产供应的支柱力量。
3. 通过采用新技术,改造老糖厂,扩大糖厂平均规模30%,新增年产糖能力280万吨,使全国年产糖总能力达到了850万吨。
4.按照合理的比价关系,先后三次调整了糖价与糖料的收购价格。
这些措施的实施,实现了1991跨1992年制糖期产糖791 万吨,1997跨1998年制糖期产糖811 万吨,1998跨1999年制糖期产糖882.6万吨,做到了国产糖自给有余,并且有少量出口。
糖业涉及到工、农、商、贸(外贸)等多个部门,相互之间有着密切的关系,为适应市场经济条件下加强行业管理的要求,1992年10月成立了中国糖业协会,使制糖行业管理由部门管理转变为行业管理,加强了行业内部企业间、地区间、部门间的协调与合作,发挥了协会横向联系和在企业与政府间的桥梁作用。
经验教训
一、1959年至1977年,“三年困难”、“十年*河蟹*”期间,由于错误思想路线的干扰,建国初期十年和1961年以后调整时期制订的许多有利于发展糖料生产的经济政策被当作“资本主义”、“物质刺激”受到批判,严重挫伤了农民生产的积极性,全国农业和糖料生产停滞不前,制糖工业建设被迫压缩,为解决糖料供应不足和糖、粮争地的矛盾,1958年、1959年、1977年三次试图用在甜菜产区分散大办甜菜土糖厂、小糖厂的办法来加快糖业发展,结果事与愿违,由于这些小厂技术不过关,生产管理落后,消耗大、成本高、亏损严重,先后垮台倒闭,这是我国糖业发展史上一次严重的教训。
二·、在糖业由计划经济向市场转换的过程中也遇到了一些新问题,取得了不少经验教训。
1. 1990年以前,我国食糖生产与销售实施的是计划经济,糖厂生产的糖全部由国有商业统购包销;随着市场经济的发展,1991年国家决定放开食糖销售,实施“多渠道、少环节”经营,食糖市场放开以后,食糖季节性生产、常年销售的任务由商业转给了工业;商业在不承担统购包销和季产年销短期储备任务以后,为加速资金周转,从本身经营利益考虑,当年压缩库存糖200多万吨,使1991跨1992年榨季制糖期投放市场食糖总量达到1000万吨,大大超过了同期市场需求量700多万吨的水平,因而出现了糖厂卖糖难,糖价暴跌,糖料收购价随之下降,企业严重亏损等一系列问题,由此引发了1992跨1993年制糖期、1993跨1994年制糖期、1994跨1995年制糖期连续三个制糖期糖料与食糖生产下降。对此,国家采取了放宽出口,适当调高糖价和糖料收购价,对糖厂所需糖料收购资金和工业季产年销短期储存食糖所需资金给予积极支持等措施,加上市场食糖供求关系由供大于求转为供应偏紧,糖价回升,糖业生产受到鼓舞,从1995年起,扭转了糖料生产下滑的局面,出现糖料与食糖生产回升的形势。
2. 在食糖供应偏紧,糖价回升的情况下,1994年下半年、1995年,一些不法分子以来料、进料加工为借口,大量走私进口食糖,凭借走私逃税价低的优势在国内压价竞销,使我国糖业再次受到致命打击。据海关统计,1994、1995两年,全国以来料、进料加工名义进口糖313.3万吨,其中未加工复出口的糖达210万吨。对于走私糖、非法进口糖的问题,国家采取了严厉打击、综合治理的措施,收到了成效,到1998年,走私糖、非法进口糖已基本被堵住。
3. 对于吃糖是否要立足于国内,在相当一段时间,由于各个部门从不同角度,不同的利益考虑,看法并不完全一致,所以相当长一段时间,屡屡发生进口糖冲击国内糖业生产的问题,这也是我国糖业在发展过程中屡屡受挫的主要原因之一。随着糖业在我国国民经济中,特别是在振兴我国周边不发达省、区经济中重要地位的日益显露,“吃糖应立足于国内”、“完全有条件立足于国内”在我国已经获得绝大多数人的共识。
4. 1997跨1998年制糖期,全国糖料大丰收,食糖产量达到811万吨,产量略微超过了市场需求,这是在没有进口糖干扰的情况下首次出现的国内市场供略大于求的情况,由于对这一丰收情况始料不及,事先措施力度不够,一些企业怕糖压在自己手里,加上资金严重短缺的压力,竞相压价销售,引发了一场价格大战,糖价暴跌,使全行业90%以上的企业亏损,亏损额高达数十亿元。对此,国家从三个方面采取了措施:
加强总量控制,限产、促销。适当控制糖料与食糖生产;控制进口,鼓励出口;限产、限用糖精等化学合成甜味剂促进食糖销售。
加强季节性平衡的调控。加大对工业季产年销临时储存食糖和主产糖地区食糖短期储备的资金支持。
加强行业内部价格自律,将食糖生产、销售、经营纳入法制化、规范化的轨道。
相信随着这些措施的实施。我国糖业生产流通将会出现稳定、健康发展的新局面。
在我国糖业进入社会主义市场经济以后,迫切需要一个公平的、法制化的市场环境。
从国内讲,要进一步完善市场的法制建设,坚持制止过分投机的行为,严厉打击走私,保护市场的公平竞争环境。从国际讲,也要严格按照我国和国际法规和惯例,有序地开展食糖进出口贸易和加工贸易,制止以走私等非法手段向我国市场倾销食糖,将国际间糖业合作建立在互相尊重主权、互通有无、互惠互利的基础之上。
世界人均年消费食糖为20公斤,高的达到30~40公斤,我国仅6公斤多一点,属世界食糖消费水平最低的国家行列,由于我国人民的饮食习惯与西方国家不同,没有必要盲目追求西方食糖消费的高水平,但鉴于我国广大农村目前食糖消费水平还相当低,随着农村经济的发展,农民生活水平的提高,我国食糖消费总量还会在现有800万吨左右的基础上有一定程度的提高。
中国糖业协会成立的历史背景。
党的十一届三中全会以来,随着社会主义市场经济的发展,1991年国务院决定调整食糖经营管理有关政策,将食糖收购调拨计划由指令性计划改为指导性计划,实行多渠道、少环节地经营食糖批发业务;食糖出厂价由国家定价改为国家指导价;食糖销售实行敞开供应。
通过1991年食糖生产经营和管理体制的改革,实现了我国糖业由计划经济向市场经济的过渡。
为适应市场经济发展的要求,必须改变计划经济时期,糖业由工、农、商、贸,条块分割的管理体制为行业管理。
中国糖业协会就是在这样的形势下产生的。
中国糖业协会创建的过程。
按照原轻工业部机构改革方案,经轻工业部食品局申报,部长办公会议同意;1989年2月组成中国糖业协会筹备组,进行章程起草和组建,经广泛征求意见,76.7%的制糖企业和95%的糖业公司、设计、科研、大专院校同意组建中国糖业协会并参加协会。
在充分准备的基础上,1992年3月28日,原轻工业部批复同意成立中国糖业协会。
同年4月6日向民政部报送了“关于申请成立中国糖业协会的报告”及相关材料
1992年6月22日,民政部批复认为“中国糖业协会符合中华人民共和国社会团体登记有关规定准予注册登记”,“中国糖业协会”社会团体法人资格确立。
1992年10月8日,中国糖业协会在北京召开成立大会。
中国糖业协会服务的宗旨与奋斗目标。
协会自成立之日起,就明确了服务的宗旨与奋斗目标:对内,了解企业困难,急企业之所急,维护企业的合法权益,传递行业信息;对上,贯彻政府的政策、法令、指示,反映企业的情况与要求,向政府提出解决问题的意见、建议,协助政府科学决策,加强宏观指导和行业管理,全心全意为行业服务、为企业服务。
中国糖业协会成立后面临的五大课题。
一、市场食糖供求总量失衡。
1. 1991年,国务院改革食糖经营管理体制,改变食糖由国有企业统购包销为工业自销,实行多渠道、少环节的经营食糖批发业务后,食糖季产年销的任务由商业转给了工业,商业不承担季产年销任务以后,为加速资金周转,在不到两年时间内,压缩多年进口结余糖和正常周转库存糖200多万吨,加上当年制糖期(1991跨1992年制糖期)所产的糖791万吨,投放市场食糖总量达到1000万吨,远远超过了当时社会年需求量720万吨的水平,历史上第一次出现市场食糖严重供过于求、卖糖难、糖价暴跌,全国制糖工业企业亏损26.4亿元,并导致往后三个制糖期糖料与食糖生产连续大滑坡。
2. 1994年、1995年,由于以加工贸易名义进口没有加工复出口的走私糖大量涌入国内市场,留销国内食糖总量高达264.3万吨,造成市场供大于求约100万吨,糖价再次暴跌,1996年全国制糖工业企业亏损22.1亿元。
3. 1997年,仍然是因为进口糖多,国家储备糖库超储;轮库糖、受潮糖不时大量出库冲击市场,使糖价长期低于平均生产成本,扭亏解困出现严重困难。
4. 1998年、1999年,一些食糖产区盲目扩大糖料种植面积,食糖産量过快增长,市场再次出现食糖供大于求,糖价下跌,企业亏损面扩大。
5. 1999年冬南方甘蔗产区遭遇严重霜冻灾害,1999跨2000年制糖期、2000跨2001年制糖期连续大减产,糖价较大幅度回升;受价格刺激,各地再次扩大糖料种植面积,食糖又一次快速增长,每吨一级白砂糖市场价格由最高4150元下降到最低2325元,落差44%。
二、国内食糖市场平衡调节机制尚未形成。
建国以来,相当长一段时期,我国食糖供应一直处于短缺状态,长期依赖进口食糖补差调节供求平衡,对组织食糖进口与储备糖,有一定经验;1991跨1992年制糖期以来,国内食糖生产实现了基本自给、略有结余,大量进口糖不得不进入国家储备糖库,使国家储备的进口糖经常处于过饱和状态,在国内食糖生产一旦供过于求时,就手忙脚乱、应对无策;此外,由于食糖是季产年销产品,季节性收储,淡、旺季吞吐调节的机制迄今尚未形成。
三、生产、流通资金极度短缺。
食糖属季产年销产品,糖料加工高度集中在3~4个月,生产期全国每天约生产糖7~8万吨,而每天的消费糖量仅有约3万吨,每天有4万吨糖要储存起来,留待停榨以后再销售,这部分糖款的回笼周期约3~6个月;因此、糖厂开机时的起动资金和季产年销短期储存糖周转资金,必须通过短期贷款解决。
1991年食糖经营管理体制改变后,食糖季产年销的任务由商业转到了工业,但相应的临时储存食糖周转资金贷款规模则没有一并从商业转到工业。
制糖工业企业在没有临时储存糖周转资金的情况下,接下了季产年销任务;因而开榨以后就要出现由于没有资金付糖料款而被迫向农民打白条、竞价卖糖的问题。
四、食糖消费量增长不快。
二十世纪九十年代,糖料与食糖生产发展较快,但食糖消费增长缓慢,其原因主要有两个方面,一是,糖精等化学合成甜味剂产量与消费量迅速增加挤占了很大一片食糖消费市场;二是违反科学的“吃糖有害”宣传与广告,影响了消费者对食糖的正常消费。
五、制糖行业内部体制性、结构性矛盾突出。
1. 重复建设严重,产业结构不合理。
在条块分割的管理体制下,一个县、一个镇,只要种上了糖料,就千方百计上糖厂、上综合利用项目,安排待业人员,以致造成了同一地区重复建设,糖厂规模小、水平低、冗员多,副产品利用分散、污染严重,效益低下。
2. 企业负债上马,包袱沉重。
许多糖厂新建项目都是地方自行上马,没有建设资金就占用银行贷款、挤占流动资金,国家资本金投入很少或没有,糖厂刚投产就背上了沉重的债务包袱,财务负担严重,生产成本居高不下;据1997年统计,当年、全制糖行业平均资产负债率为87.84%,高于80%的占46%,高于120%的占14%,最高的达到了219%。
3.冗员多,负担大。
主要表现为,机构臃肿、所在地政府硬性向企业摊派安置人员;老企业退休人员多;企业办社会规模大、用人多。
4. 糖厂建设与发展和市场需求脱节。
地方办糖厂的目的主要是,安排人员,扶贫开发,发展当地经济,增加地方财税收入,对当地糖厂与全国总量平衡的关系和市场需求的变化,很少考虑。
5. 糖料价格与食糖市场价格背离。
主要反映为,较长时期糖料收购沿用了计划经济时期的固定收购价,而食糖价格则实行市场价,没有挂钩联动,工、农间未形成利益共享、风险共担机制。
6. 行业自律机制没有形成。
在行业内部存在着,我行我素,各自为战,散乱经营,无序竞争等问题,缺乏管理协调和自我约束机制。
协会成立以来进行的主要工作。
在邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想指导下,中国糖业协会成立以来协助政府做了以下工作:
一、协助政府做好食赯市场总量平衡工作。
1. 控制食糖进口。
计划经济时期,食糖生产、销售、进口由轻工、商业、外贸三个部门分管,国产糖、进口糖全部由国有商业统购包销;由于国产糖产不足销,国家对进口糖实行了优惠政策,进口糖关税一再减免,由1988年30%,1989年减为15%,1997年进一步减为12%;与此同时,自1963年以来,国产糖出厂价连续26年维持低价位不变,政策的差异,鼓励了食糖进口,遏制了国内糖业的生产;加上1959~1961年“三年自然灾害”,和1966~1975年“十年*河蟹*”,严重影响了糖业的正常生产;国内市场进口糖量愈来愈多,三分之一以上的国内食糖市场被进口糖挤占;二十世纪六十年代我国平均每年进口糖63.62万吨,七十年代平均每年进口糖为80.92万吨,“六五”(1981~1985)期间平均每年进口秒糖增加到173万吨,“七五”期间进一步增加到180万吨;1982年、1988年、和1995年分别达到218万吨、380万吨和247万吨(1995年含走私进口因素);从1949~1990年,全国累计进口食糖3000万吨,用汇70多亿美元
党的十一届三中全会以后,在邓小平理论的指引下,党中央、国务院为满足市场食糖供应,扭转长期依赖进口的局面,确定了“吃糖要立足于国内”的方针,实施了国家收购糖奖售粮、奖售化肥等一系列扶持政策,1987年进一步调整了糖、粮比价关系,农民生产积极性提高,食糖大幅度增产,1991跨1992年制糖期,产糖量达到791万吨,实现了基本自给,略有结余(当时全国市场年需求量约为720万吨)。
随着市场经济的发展,1991年国家改革食糖经营管理体制,改变国产糖由国有商业统购包销为工业自销,实行多渠道、少环节的经营食糖批发业务;国家进口糖和国家储备糖继续由国有商业代管,保留计划经济时期对进口糖减免关税、提供贴息贷款、由国家负担储存期保管、损耗费用等一系列优惠政策;国产糖继续按老规定,照章纳税、承担全部贷款利息、费用,和企业办社会的负担。
这样就使国产糖与进口糖,处在了政策待遇不均等的竞争地位。
国家储备糖储存的是进口糖,补充入库的是进口糖,投放市场的还是进口糖。
在食糖市场中,进口糖与国产糖、商业与工业分成了两大块。
由于国家储备与商业经营不分,代储单位就是商业经营单位,优先考虑的主要是商业经营利益,这样、很自然的对经营、销售管理简便、效益高的进口糖感兴趣,而对收储和销售效益低下的国产糖缺乏积极性,久而久之、就自觉、不自觉的把国家储备糖变成了与国产糖进行市场竞销的手段,使进口糖成为在国内市场与国产糖竞争的对手。
由于进口糖比国产糖在政策待遇上享有明显的优势,所以每逢国家储备糖库“处理潮糖”、“轮库”、“清库”和投放,都要产生“狼”吓“羊”的效应,引起市场动荡。
针对进口糖管理中存在的问题,和进口糖多造成的卖糖难、糖价暴跌、企业亏损严重的情况,中国糖业协会做了大量调查研究、情况反映工作,受到了国务院领导同志的重视。
1997年5月,国务院领导同志在中国糖业协会第五十四期食糖产销情况简报上批示:“严格控制进口和加工贸易,坚决打击走私,稳定糖价和全国制糖工业”。
1997年7月国务院领导同志在一份报告上批示:“明年食糖供需平衡有余,要及早筹划”;“除进口古巴糖外,限制进口,打击走私,以作到供需基本平衡”。
2. 加强国家储备糖管理。
国家储备糖管理和运行中出现的问题,引起了国务院领导同志的关注。
1996年4月,国务院领导同志在中国糖业协会第四十一期“食糖产销情况简报”上批示:“目前这种国家储备与商业经营不分,工业承担季产年销的食糖储备问题确需认真解决。”
1997年4月3日,国务院领导同志在中国糖业协会有关《紧急情况反映》上批示:“由于非法进口糖(以加工贸易为名),我国制糖工业和蔗农受到严重打击,至今尚未复元,此时内贸部门不宜清库,事关宏观调控,必须谨慎行事”。
1997年4月7日,国务院领导同志再次批示:“当前制糖工业企业和蔗农仍很困难,市场供大于求,糖价下降,因此内贸部不宜于近期抛售库存”。
1997年7月10日,国家计委领导批示:“储备糖应与商业周转用库存糖分开,动用权在国务院,没有经过批准不得动用”。
遵照国务院领导同志的批示精神,经国务院同意决定将“国家储备糖”与商业经营单位分开,由国家(发改委、商务部)直接管理。
至此,“国家储备糖”的经营管理由商业代管转为国家管理,由优先考虑部门利益回到考虑国家利益,纳入了法制化、规范化的轨道。
在国家的整合管理下,“国家储备糖”的收储(国内收贮)、投放,多安排在市场糖价下限和上限价位活动期,让出了糖价平稳销售期;既发挥了“国家储备糖”宏观调控的作用,又使产区企业能够在平稳的市场环境下,均衡、顺价销售食糖。
在保障国内市场食糖供应方面,国家进一步明确:优先保证国产糖的销售;供应不足时,先以储备糖(国家与地方储备)补缺;再不足时,方以进口糖补差的原则。
3. 严厉打击食糖走私违法活动。
1994年起,我国东南沿海地区一些单位,以加工贸易为名大量走私进口食糖,对我国糖业生产造成严重冲击。
1995年5月中国糖业协会根据在西安召开的“全国食糖产销工作会议”各产糖省、区的反映与要求,发出了“严厉打击食糖走私犯罪活动,挽救我国糖业”的情况反映,受到了国务院领导同志的高度重视。
国务院领导同志在“反映”上批示,“组织力量,严厉打击”。
遵照国务院领导同志批示精神,1995年6月中国糖业协会与海关总署调查局签署了“关于合作打击食糖走私违法活动的备忘录”要求全行业提供食糖走私违法活动线索,并派人参加了多起食糖走私大案、要案的调查处理工作。
此外,向1995年7月在广州召开的“全国部分地区打击走私工作会议”提交了中国轻工总会起草的“关于发展食糖生产,加强糖业管理,打击食糖走私的建议”。
经国务院同意,国家计委、中国轻工总会、国内贸易部、对外贸易经济合作部、中国人民银行、国家工商行政管理局、海关总署等七个部委于1996年6月联合发出了“关于加强进口食糖管理,打击食糖走私违法活动的通知”;通知下发实施后,对加强进口食糖管理,规范食糖加工贸易,遏制食糖走私犯罪活动起到了重要作用。协会的工作受到了国务院和海关总署领导的表扬。
1998年以后,按照党中央、国务院的部署,随着全国打击走私联合行动和专项斗争的开展,食糖走私违法活动基本被制止。
为加强对加工贸易的管理;2000年3月15日,外经贸部发出“关于加强加工贸易食糖进口审批管理有关事项的通知”,规定:加工贸易原糖进口由外经贸部会同国家轻工业局批准。中国糖业协会配合外经贸部、国家轻工业局加强了对食糖加工贸易的管理,杜绝利用加工贸易渠道走私食糖。
4. 适当控制糖料与食糖生产。
1998年以来,由于糖料与食糖生产的增长速度超过了消费量的增长。
1999年1月,国务院领导同志批示:要通过及时发布食糖信息和指导价格,适当控制糖料与食糖生产;严格控制食糖进口,打击食糖走私。
1999年11月,国务院领导同志批示:“目前食糖总量严重供过于求,食糖价格持续走低,要继续调减糖料种植面积,淘汰质量和效益低的落后生产能力”。
1999年冬,南方甘蔗遭受罕见霜冻灾害,食糖大幅度减产,糖价大幅度回升、
2000年4月,国务院领导批示:千万不要一窝蜂扩大糖料种植面积。
国家轻工局领导要求:坚决贯彻国务院指示精神,控制产量,调整结构;要顾全大局,不要只顾局部、暂时利益影响全局部署。
根据国务院领导指示精神和国家计委、国家轻工业局的要求,中国糖业协会及时进行了传达、协调,分片、分省区召开制糖企业座谈会进行落实,一些省区按照市场需求制订了调减糖料种植面积的计划,同时压缩不良生产能力;为了控制产量,中国糖业协会协助国家经贸委于2000年、2001年连续两年下发了全国食糖总量控制在750万吨的分省、区食糖产量控制指标。
为规范糖料收购秩序,建立糖料生产者与制糖企业利益共享、风险共担的机制,促进糖料与食糖的产业化经营,中国糖业协会协助国家计委起草了糖料管理暂行办法,于2002年6月28日由国家计委、国家经贸委、农业部、国家工商行政管理局以第23号令发布实施。
二、安排工业季产年销短期储备糖,解决糖厂生产流通资金供应。
1. 安排制糖工业企业季产年销临时储存糖资金供应。
计划经济时期,食糖由国有商业统购包销,商业在所有糖厂均设有驻厂员,在成品包装车间点包入库,当天结账,糖厂不存在资金短缺问题。
食糖改由工业自销后,商业临时储存糖的贷款规模没有相应转给工业;工业在没有资金(贷款)的情况下,接下了季产年销临时储存糖的任务,由于没钱付甘蔗(甜菜)款,被迫向农民打白条。
为了解决这个问题,中国糖业协会通过“简报”多次进行反映,中国轻工总会两次向国务院报告请示。
1996年4月,国务院领导同志在中国糖业协会第四十一期“食糖产销情况简报”上批示:“工业承担季产年销的库存储备问题确需认真解决”。
1996年6月7日,国务院领导再次在一份有关请示报告上批示:“同意安排银行贷款增加食糖工业企业临时储备,利息、费用由食糖工业企业负担”。
遵照国务院领导批示精神,国家计委、国家经贸委、中国轻工总会、国家轻工业局、中国人民银行、中国工商银行(5.44 +0.93%,诊股)、中国农业银行从1996年起逐年安排每个制糖期的制糖工业企业短期储备食糖资金,资金供应量随产量逐年递增。
为不断改进工业储备糖工作,中国糖业协会每年召开会议,检查计划落实情况,交流储备工作经验。
经过近十年的努力改进,工业储备糖的资金供应改善,各用款企业在银行树立了良好的信誉。
2.增加主产区地方食糖储备。
为增强主产糖地区对糖料与食糖生产丰、欠的平衡调控能力,根据主产区要求和国家轻工业局、中国糖业协会意见,经国家计委协调,国务院领导同志同意,1999年4月,国家计委、财政部、中国人民银行联合发出通知,安排广西、广东、云南三省区在1998跨1999年榨季收购食糖50万吨,作为地方储备,期限一年以上,从而为主产区地方食糖储备工作奠定了基础。
3.满足糖厂糖料收购资金供应。
1991年食糖产销体制改革以后,由于食糖不能很快销售,糖款不能马上回笼,糖料款无法及时支付,为从政策上保证糖料收购资金供应,防止向农民打白条,中国轻工总会、中国糖业协会和一些食糖主产区多次向国务院反映情况和意见,受到国务院领导同志的重视。
1995年11月国务院领导同志在广西视察工作时指示,“请农业开发银行研究将甘蔗收购资金像粮、棉一样列入农业开发银行贷款规模里面、给予保证”。
1996年1月国务院领导同志在听取中国轻工总会汇报时指示:“关于糖料收购资金问题,再研究一下,看能否纳入到粮棉油收购资金范围”。
遵照国务院领导同志的指示精神,国家经贸委于1996年1月召开专门会议听取中国糖业协会汇报,并和中国轻工总会、中国人民银行与相关商业银行共同进行研究;经报请国务院领导同志同意,国家经贸委于1996年2月发出“关于落实制糖行业收物资金的通知”。
1997年9月6日,国务院办公厅转发“国家计委关于进一步调整食糖生产和流通有关政策的意见”,要求中国人民银行和有关国有商业银行要根据糖料收购进度,积极落实收购资金,确保收购资金及时足额到位。
中国人民银行表示,向糖料收购资金列为优先保证供应对象,确保不向农民打白条。
此后,中国糖业协会每年向国家计委,中国人民银行及各专业银行报送各地糖料收购资金需求计划;形成了稳定的资金供应渠道。
三、应用价格杠杆调控生产,加强行业内部价格自律。
1. 调控价格,稳定糖业生产。
1992~1994年,全国糖料生产连续三年大滑坡,1995年8月,中国糖业协会协助国家计委价格司、中国轻工总会,在北京召开“食糖价格座谈会”,在广泛听取各方意见的基础上,综合考虑农民能够接受、多数糖厂能过得去、消费者能够承受、商业有经营积极性,保证国家、地方财税收入,考虑国产糖与进口糖(均含税、费)之间价格平衡关系等各种因素,提出了调整糖价的意见,由国家计委下发了1995跨1996年制糖期“关于调整食糖价格的通知”,同时相应调整了糖料收购价格,保护了工农业生产,调动了农民种植糖料的积极性,扭转了糖料与食糖生产滑坡的局面。
2.加强价格协调与行业自律。
协会成立以来,每年均召开全国食糖产销协调会,重要内容之一是加强省、区间食糖价格协调,依照国家指导意见,加强行业内部价格协调与自律:此外,还按需要不定期召开重点产区销售协调会,及时解决地区间、企业间迫于资金压力,相互竞价销售的问题,平稳了糖价,维护了生产的稳定。
1998年,食糖供过于求,不少地方暴发“价格大战”,中国糖业协会按照国家经贸委、国家轻工业局的要求,召开了“制糖行业价格自律工作会议”,制订了行规、行约,协助政府开展了价格执法检查,抑制了价格战的蔓延,防止了糖价急剧下滑,维护了市场秩序,增强了执法意识。
四、改革生产流通协调机制。
针对糖业产,销,进出口分离,在市场经济中暴露出的问题。
国务院领导同志在一份关于我国食糖市场问题的报告上批示:“在弄清情况的基础上,提出改革我国食糖产销体制的意见”。
为此,国家计委、国家经贸委、国务院研究室,分别组织调研,中国糖业协会参加并提供相关材料。
1997年9月6日,国务院办公厅同意并转发了国家计委“关于进一步调整食糖生产和流通有关政策的意见”成立了由国家计委、国家经贸委牵头,有关部、局、会,海关、银行参加的食糖产销(部际)协调小组,负责及时协调食糖生产流通有关重大政策问题,这一机制一直延续了下来;糖业改革发展中一些重大问题得到了及时处理。
五、调整糖业结构,改革糖业管理。
为落实党的 “十五大”关于深化国有企业改革的部署和国务院领导同志关于“甜菜糖业究竟应采取什么行业政策应有通盘考虑,单靠银行解困不是办法”。的指示精神,大力推进国有制糖工业企业改革,中国糖业协会于1998年6月在北京召开“全国制糖工业企业深化改革座谈会”,总结交流经验,以制糖工业企业为重点,全面推进糖业改革发展。
1.调整糖业结构。
2000年8月,国务院领导同志在一份《关于关闭“五小”、淘汰落后,压缩过剩生产能力情况的报告》上批示: “经验证明,对污染环境、破坏资源、质量低劣、不符合安全生产条件的企业,必须依法采取行政关闭的措施,不如此,这些企业不会自动退出市场。但是,压缩、限制供过于求的长线产品生产的企业,只能采取经济手段,通过市场淘汰迫其退出。所谓“经济手段”主要是指银行对那些成本高于市场价格、经营亏损的企业要停止贷款。地方财政更不能以补贴等手段来保护这些落后企业。当前,防止那些被淘汰企业死灰复燃的最好办法,仍然是利用市场机制和价格杠杆。”
根据国务院领导指示精神,中国糖业协会协助国家经贸委和国家轻工业局,在充分调查研究听取各地意见和综合各地上报材料的基础上,制订了《全国糖业结构调整方案》;经国务院同意,国家经贸委、国家计委、财政部、中国人民银行2000年8月印发《关于制糖行业结构调整部分企业关闭破产有关问题的请示》的通知。
通知指出,全国糖业连续四个榨季亏损,企业生产经营十分困难,行业陷入困境。主要原因是,前几年地方小糖厂盲目发展,重复建设,结构不合理,企业规模偏小;糖精等化学合成甜味剂超量生产和使用,挤占食糖市场。
通知提出,要压减落后生产能力,优化结构和合理布局;不宜种植糖料的一些地区分期分批退出制糖行业;对主产糖地区资产负债率高、亏损严重并且扭亏无望的糖厂实施关闭破产。
调整后,全国保留制糖工业企业389户,产糖能力779.5万吨,形成了南方以广西、云南、广东甘蔗糖为主,北方新疆、内蒙古、黑龙江甜菜糖适当发展的布局。
2001年11月,全国企业兼并破产和职工再就业工作领导小组下发了“关于抓紧组织实施制糖行业部分企业关闭破产的通知”要求有关省、区、直辖市,有关部门抓紧实施。
通过糖业结构调整,保留糖厂开工率提高,涌现出了一批以先进制糖企业为龙头的大型企业集团,在加强科学管理、推进科技进步,提高经济效益、保障市场供应,保护生态环境,实现可持续发展方面发挥了主力军作用。
2. 发展规模糖业。
2001年国务院领导同志提出:“要把规模制糖搞上去”。根据这一指示精神,国家经贸委组织调研组赴广西、云南等主要食糖产区进行调研,鼓励优势企业扩大规模,实现规模化、集团化经营。
其后、各地大型糖业集团有了较快发展。
以广西为例,当时全区共110家糖厂,关停3家,待破产12家,剩余的95家通过优化重组,形成10个制糖工业集团,其中7个集团(含46家糖厂)很快开始运作。
通过结构调整、企业改制、生产要素重新优化组合,全国规模糖业迅速发展;集约化经营、专业化生产,科学管理水平大幅度提高。
全国产糖量的95%集中到了广西、云南、广东、海南、新疆五个优势省、区;在五个省、区中,半数以上的产糖量又集中到了二十多家大型制糖工业集团。
3. 改革企业管理。
通过企业改制、改造,实现了政企分离;建立了现代企业制度,包括:建立有效的资产管理、监督和营运机制;成本约束、技术创新、民主监督、和科学决策机制;使企业与市场紧密结合,成为自负盈亏、自我发展、自我约束的法人实体和市场经济的竞争主体。
4. 减员增效,实施再就业工程。
以市场需求为导向,通过创办新兴二、三产业,开发市场短缺产品,有计划的组织职工下岗分流,分离企业办社会的职能,通过职业培训、实现再就业,并建立、健全职工生活社会保障制度,逐步解决了糖厂机构臃肿、冗员多,企业办社会等问题。
5.加强企业领导班子建设,提高职工素质。
按国务院要求,组织企业领导班子培训,提高政治、业务素质,组织企业领导班子培训,提高政治、业务素质,健全对班子的监督、考核评价与奖罚。
逐步恢复重点产糖省、区人材培养、智力开发、科学研究机制,建立人材培养基地(含工、农业);通过多种形式,多层次、多渠道培训职工、开发智力,建立企业科技人员队伍。
以专业科研为骨干、厂办科研为桥梁,把科研与生产紧密结合起来,加速科研成果向现实生产力的转化;把企业的人材优势、科技优势,转化为管理优势,生产技术优势,经济效益优势。
认真落实国家鼓励大专院校毕业生、工程技术人员、专家到西部地区工作的优惠政策。
六、限产、限销糖精等化学合成甜味剂。
1.国家关于糖精限产,限销、限用的规定。
1991年以来,国务院领导同志多次提出要限制生产、使用糖精等化学合成甜味剂,提倡适当多吃一点食糖。
1992年1月9日,原轻工业部举行新闻发布会,明确提出要严格控制糖精等化学合成甜味剂的生产使用。
1992年5月9日,国务院原生产办、国家计委联合召开糖精等化学合成甜味剂限产座谈会;7月联合下发了“关于糖精等化学合成甜味剂限产、限用的通知”。
1992年原轻工业部向全国发出通知,限制生产和进口化学合成甜味剂。规定“内销指标不得突破;不准再新建、扩建糖精生产车间;未经批准使用的化学合成甜味剂不准生产和使用;不准生产销售复合甜味剂;限制一切化学合成甜味剂的进口。”
1993年4月13日,原化工部化工司将全国糖精限产10000吨、国内限销6000吨的指标分解后,下达到16家糖精生产企业。规定:“内销指标不得突破;不得以增加出口为名,增加产量扩大内销;不得以任何借口新上或扩大糖精生产能力。”
1998年8月31日,国家经贸委发出“关于严格控制糖精生产能力、限制糖精产量和内销量的通知”,规定从1998到2000年,糖精年生产总量控制在24000吨以内,其中内销量控制在8000吨以内。
2. 糖精超产,超销、超用,严重冲击糖业生产、危害社会安定与人民健康。
限产、限销、限用糖精等化学合成甜味剂,是关系国家产业政策的大事。
由于对糖精的产、销、使用,缺乏有效的监督管理与完善的法规,在暴利的驱使下,超量生产、内销,和在食品行业中超限量、超范围使用糖精的问题日益严重,达到了非治理不可的地步。
一、一些地方和企业,违反国家规定,任意扩大糖精生产能力,增加产量,扩大内销。
糖精生产能力从1992年17000吨,增加到1998年47000吨;糖精产量由1991年13126吨提高到了1998年29175吨;内销量由6000吨提高到了13220吨,超过国家限制内销指标(当时为6000吨)7220吨,超计划销售的量约相当于325万吨蔗糖的甜度。
二、在食品行业中超限量、超范围使用糖精的问题日益严重。
1998年,全国年消费食糖量约800万吨,其中,工业用糖约占一半即约为400万吨;同期全国内销糖精量为13220吨,除掉非食品工业用糖精约2000吨外,食品工业用糖精量约为11220吨,约相当于500万吨蔗糖的甜度;数字说明,在全国食品加工业所用的甜味剂中糖精占了62.5%,其中尚不包括甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜等其他化学合成甜味剂。
国际上糖精等高倍甜味剂在食用甜味剂中所占的比重(均按甜度计)通常不超过5%。
三、超范围、超限量使用糖精造成的危害。
1. 严重侵犯了消费者的权益,损害了消费者的身体健康。
按1998年的市场价格,50元左右的糖精可以顶替3000元左右的蔗糖;在高额利润的驱使下,一些生产经营者,以糖精冒充蔗糖获取暴利的情况愈演愈烈;而几乎所有添加糖精等化学合成甜味剂的食品,在外包装或标签上均未标明所添加糖精等化学合成甜味剂的名称与含量;也就是说,广大消费者在被蒙骗的情况下,吃了糖精还以为吃了蔗糖;侵犯了消费者的知情权,危害了消费者的身体健康。
2. 严重冲击糖业生产,给社会造成巨大经济损失。
按照1998年城市和农村的消费水平,当时年产800多万吨糖,在销售方面本不应有问题;但由于超量、超范围、超限量销售和使用糖精,每年超过国家限销指标多销售了约7000吨糖精,相当于挤占了约300多万吨食糖的消费市场;而减少300万吨食糖的销售,就要关闭125家日压榨甘蔗2000吨规模的糖厂,使12.5万制糖工业职工失去就业机会,1500万农民的切身利益受到伤害;给产糖地区(许多是贫困地区)的经济振兴和社会安定造成了极大的困难。
四、限产糖精和减产糖的利弊、得失。
1. 从结构调整的角度看,限产糖精要远比减产糖难度小。
关停一间年产3000吨规模的糖精厂,约涉及到1000多位职工的安置和7000多万元的产值,但可以腾出135万吨左右的食糖消费市场;如果多销售135万吨食糖,就可以保留56间日压榨甘蔗2000吨规模的糖厂,提供5.6万个城镇人口就业机会,使67万农民因种植甘蔗增加收入,增加产值约40亿元,税利约4.3亿元。
2. 调减糖精生产涉及的地区范围远比调减蔗糖小。
3. 调减糖精生产有利环境保护。
糖精属于高污染化工行业,盲目发展,给产区城镇空气、水源特别是糖精企业职工带来了严重污染。
4.国务院领导高度关怀糖精限产,限销、限用。
1998年国务院领导同志批示:“为促进制糖行业走出困境,保护农民利益,提高人民群众生活质量,要像纺织工业压绽一样,下决心关掉糖精厂”。
1999年9月24日,*河蟹*同志在中国糖业协会《食糖产销情况简报》有关糖精限产,限销、限用存在问题的情况反映上批示:“必须坚决关闭和限制向国内市场销售的糖精厂,并妥为善后。一定要坚决、迅速、果断,毫不留情。此事对食糖工业、农业和农民以及全国人民都大有好处。不惜付出代价也要办成这件事。切切。”
*河蟹*同志批示:“完全赞同镕基同志批示。”
*河蟹*同志批示:“赞成镕基同志意见。食品包装上应标明糖精及其它化学合成甜味的成份,以保护消费者的权益和健康。此事应有法规落实。”
遵照国务院领导的批示精神。1999年12月末,国家经贸委以特急件下发《关于下达2000年糖精生产及内销计划指标的紧急通知》;通知规定:2000年全国糖精生产总量限制在16000吨以内,其中内销量限制在3000吨以内;同时确定关停9家糖精生产企业,保留5家糖精生产企业,从1999年12月31日起,关停的9家糖精生产企业停止糖精生产和对外签订糖精出口合同。
2000年5月26日,国家经贸委、财政部、外经贸部、卫生部、国家质量技术监督局、国家工商行政管理局、海关总署联合印发《关于加强糖精生产销售使用管理的规定》的通知。通知规定:对超计划生产、超计划内销糖精的企业,扣减其当年和下一年度的生产和内销计划,企业超计划生产和超计划内销部分所实现的利税,在年终办理决算时全部上交中央财政,情节严重者将追究有关领导责任。属于无照或超范围生产、销售糖精的,由工商行政管理部门依法处理。对于超范围、超限量使用糖精等合成甜味剂的企业,由工商行政管理、质量技术监督、卫生等有关行政管理部门依法处理。
其他合成甜味剂参照此规定执行。
五、治理有方,收到成效。
在国务院领导同志的关怀和中央有关委、部、局的精心组织安排下,糖精等化学合成甜味剂的限产,限销、限用收到明显成效。
自国务院领导1999年8月批示,要限产,限销、限用糖精以来,实际内销量由1999年14220吨下降到2001年以后4500吨以下;超计划内销量由1998年7220吨,逐年下降,2002、2003年分别为366吨和362吨。
需要注意的是,2004年超计划内销糖精量又有明显上升趋势,达到了1141吨。
六、多方设防、严防死灰复燃。
超限量使用糖精等化学合成甜味剂有暴利可图,总是会有少数人铤而走险。因此,限产,限销、限用糖精等化学合成甜味剂,是一项长期的任务,不能丝毫松懈。
为将工作落到实处,中国糖业协会将协助政府做好以下工作:
1、完善国家相关法规,加强监督、严格执法。
2、采取经济手段予以制约。
3、协助“糖精协作组”做好糖精行业内部工作。
七、积极宣传适量吃糖有益人体健康。
为宣传适量吃糖有益健康的科学道理,批驳吃糖有害论;1992年8月、2000年元月,中国糖业协会先后两次在北京人民大会堂举办“食糖与健康研讨会”,邀请国内十多位知名医学科学、食品营养、生物化学等多方面专家就食糖与健康的关系进行论证,得出了适量吃糖有益健康的科学论断。
为批驳一些报章、广告中的吃糖有害论,中国糖业协会先后十次通过“食糖产销情况简报”在行业内部进行通报,并通过中国轻工报、中国食品报,糖业网站等新闻媒体进行科学宣传,同时与一些相关报社总编进行协商,建议他们在涉及食糖与健康报导方面持科学严谨态度,切实把好关,把广告与新闻分开。
八、“入世” 前后。
1、“入世”前的准备。
1997年4月15日,在中国轻工总会召开《轻工行业关税调整工作会议》期间,中国糖业协会提出了应对“入世”,保持国内糖业生产稳定的,关于关税与非关税保护措施的具体建议。
其后,行业内的专家,多次在有关报章、杂志上发表有关“糖业‘入世’后的机遇、挑战与对策”的文章。
2、“入世”的承诺。
2001年12月11日,我国参加了世界贸易组织,按照对外谈判协议,中国“入世”后,关于“关税配额进口食糖”的承诺是:
(1)、国营贸易比例:70%。
(2)、关税配额:2000年160万吨;2001年168万吨;2002年176.4万吨;2003年185.22万吨;2004年194.5万吨;实施期:由2002至2004年;配额内税率:由20%降至15%,配额外税率:由60.4%降至50%。
[注:关税配额糖量,并不等于必需进口糖量,能不能进口,进口多少,主要取决于国内市场食糖的上限价位,如果国内市场糖价低于进口糖价(均含税费),糖就进不来]
(3)、“入世”后的机遇与挑战。
中国是世界第三产糖大国、第二食糖消费大国,加入WTO既给糖业发展旣带来了机遇,又提出了挑战。
(1)机遇。
它有利于发挥中国糖业的优势(诸如,承揽国际原糖精炼加工;协助发展中国家发展糖业;境外投资办厂和输出我国糖业专利技术等),参与国际竞争;有利于改善中国的投资环境,引进糖业生产建设急需的资金;有利于引进国外先进的技术、装备和管理,提高中国糖业生产技术及管理水平;有利于推进中国糖业管理体制的改革和结构的调整;有利于促进中国食糖市场的法制化、规范化建设。
(2)、面临的挑战。
与先进产糖国家相比,中国糖业生产管理水平(含工、农业)还比较低,主要是,生产效率低、消耗大,成本高,国际竞争力较弱。
特别是,“入世”时,我国承诺的进口糖关税税率偏低、关税准入量偏大,使我国无法享受到对待发展中国家的关税与关税配额措施(非关税措施)的保护,很容易受到国际市场糖价异常波动的冲击,并约束了我国国内市场糖价的上限价位。
4、入世后采取的对策措施。
面对挑战,国家在深化糖业改革,迎接对外开放方面采取了积极的对策措施:
(1)、调整糖业结构。
通过结构调整,淘汰了成本居高不下、扭亏无望的落后产区与企业,压缩产糖能力约100万吨。
(2)、调整企业组织结构。
通过发展规模糖业,建立现代企业制度,提高职工素质,推进科技进步,加速企业由数量扩张型向质量效益型、资源节约型、生态环保型的转变,增强了企业的市场应变能力与国际竞争力。
(3)、培育和发展现代流通业和信息业。
通过中心批发市场和市场电子信息网络的建设,缩短了国内与国外,产区与销区,厂家与商家的空间与时间距离,发挥了服务生产、促进流通、造福消费者的积极作用。
(4)、加强和改善宏观管理。
-- 加强总量控制。
加强综合平衡、全面整合,控制食糖产量过快的增长;调控食糖进口;限产、限用糖精等化学合成甜味剂,扩大食糖内需。
-- 完善国家储备糖的调控服务职能。
完善国家储备在国内食糖市场上、下限价位区投放、收储的调控服务机制,发挥国家储备保护生产、保障供给、保持糖价平稳的作用。
-- 为企业营造均等的国际贸易竞争环境。
通过双边、多边国际贸易谈判,按照世贸游戏规则,为我国食糖进出口争取均等的国际竞争环境(主要在进、出口关税方面求得平衡;并互相承认对方的市场经济地位)。
-- 加强质量技术监督,制止不合格糖品的进口。
加强质量卫生监督,制止不合格糖品的进口,维护经营进口企业和消费者的权益,保持国内市场稳定,保障消费者的人身安全与健康。
-- 满足企业对生产经营资金的需求。
在企业实行质押,资金安全有保障的前提下,充分满足企业对生产经营所需资金的需求。
(5)、减轻企业负担。
-- 通过改制和上市筹集资金、引进资金,解决大型制糖骨干企业(集团)负债率高,资本金不足,财务费用负担重的问题。
-- 分离企业办社会的职能。
-- 取消甘蔗特产税,减免农业税。
(6)加强行业协会为企业、为政府的双向服务。
通过行业协会,认真贯彻国家有关发展糖业的政策、措施、指示,反映企业的呼声与愿望,维护企业的正当权益;加强行业内部的协调与管理;发挥协会在企业与政府间的桥梁与纽带作用。
5、趁势前进。
在国家的指导与帮助下,“入世”短暂三年,我国糖业经受住了国际食糖市场瞬息多变的磨练,取得了长足的进步与迅速的发展,大幅度提升了国际竞争力。
开放之余,我们必须勿忘自保;国际间的贸易从来都是以自利为先;我国“入世”并不意味着已经获得了“世贸”游戏规则所阐述的全部权利;我们必须尽快掌握和应用“世贸”游戏规则,适时进行自我保护,维护自己正当的权益,必要时做出反击(如反倾销等),以免受到不平等对待的伤害。
面向国际、国内两个市场,沿海与内陆的制糖企业要搞好分工,扬长避短,加强合作;沿海企业要发挥对外窗口与聚散地的作用,努力开拓高科技含量、高附加值产品,进军国际市场,引导国内消费新潮流;内陆企业要练好内功,提高职工素质,推进科技进步,加强科学管理,努力提高生产效率与效益,增加农民收入,加强糖料生产在农业生产中的比较效益与基础地位,使我国糖业在国际竞争中始终保持稳健发展的势头。
九、加强国际糖业技术经济交流与友好往来。
应美国、日本、英国、印尼、泰国、澳大利亚、古巴等国糖业界的邀请,中国糖业协会先后派人对这些国家的糖业政策、食糖市场、糖业管理及制糖生产技术进行了全面考察,参考国外做法,结合我国实际,研究我国糖业在市场经济条件下,面临问题的解决思路,研究我国“入世”以后面临的机遇与对策。
在对外交流的方式上,不断有创新、有发展。
1999年10组织了对欧盟糖业考察。
2000年6月,随国家轻工业局考察团,赴英国、比利时考察欧盟糖业管理体制,研究借鉴欧盟经验,理顺我国糖业管理体制,提高效率与效益。考察后向国务院报告了情况,提出了改革我国糖业管理体制的建议。
2001年4月在北京组织中国食糖与甜味剂(国际)研讨会
2002年起与欧盟糖业协会建立相互联系会员关系;在信息、技术、管理、市场研究、食糖消费等方面开展合作。
2003年召开北京“WTO与中国糖业发展(国际)研讨会”,联合举办“中国湛江糖业发展研讨会”。
妥善处理国内、国际两个食糖市场的关系。
从我国的国情看,人多地少、不适宜成为世界食糖的净输出国;但从中国有13亿人口,南、北方均具备产糖的优越条件考虑,解决吃糖问题也不能依赖进口;理想的解决吃糖问题的方案应该是:实现吃糖基本自给,少量通过进、出口平衡调节。
在邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想的指引下,通过二十世纪九十年代糖业进入市场经济以来的结构调整、改革发展,和2001年末“入世”三年多来的竞争、磨练,我国糖业、特别是大型糖业集团的国际竞争力明显增强,食糖平均生产成本大幅度降低,进口糖价格与国内食糖平均生产成本(均含税费)之间的上、下限价位差距拉大,大大增强了我们调控食糖进、出口的能力。
在国际间贸易相互平等(进、出口关税均等)的条件下,我们已具备通过进、出口,调节国内食糖供求平衡,保护工农业生产、保障市场供应,保持糖价平稳的能力;与此同时,我们也会通过积极开展国际食糖贸易(含加工贸易),为促进国际食糖流通,调节国际食糖供求平衡,维护世界糖价平稳做出自己的贡献。
相信,通过妥善处理两个市场关系;进一步加强全面整合和总量平衡、季节性平衡;深化改革,加强行业管理,我国糖业一定能获得持续、稳健地发展。
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